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研究生:李柏廷
研究生(外文):Po-Ting Li
論文名稱:以定流量幫浦法量測乾溼側之土壤水分特性曲線
論文名稱(外文):Measurement of Drying and Wetting SWCCs by Flow Pump Method
指導教授:葛宇甯
口試委員:楊國鑫邱俊翔
口試日期:2018-07-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:土木工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:流量幫浦法吸力下降量測土壤水分特性曲線基質吸力軸轉換技術
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大多數的大地工程師都使用傳統的土壤力學來解決大地工程的問題,由Karl Terzaghi提出的土壤力學中都是基於土壤是完全乾燥或是飽和的假設下。但是在很多現地狀況都是屬於不飽和土壤,若是使用傳統的土壤力學進行分析,便會造成不當的大地工程設計,因此了解不飽和土壤力學是必要的。不飽和土壤力學在基本分為三個部分,包含了不飽和土壤力學的理論部分、量測不飽和土壤基本性質的實驗方法和模擬不飽和土壤力學行為的方法(Chen, 2017)。其中土壤水分特性曲線(SWCC)在不飽和力學中扮演了一個重要的角色,SWCC是由含水量和土壤吸力所組成的,每一種不同的土壤都有其獨特的SWCC。在過去的幾十年中,有許多學者提出室內實驗和現地試驗來量測SWCC,這些方法包含了濾紙法、離心機試驗、張力計試驗和壓力鍋試驗。其中壓力鍋試驗已經被廣泛的使用,因為其步驟較為簡易且實驗結果有一定的可靠性,但是在壓力鍋試驗中判斷試體是否達到穩定的唯一方法是觀察其排水的狀況,為了確保試體達到飽和,所以實驗的過程就會拉長,為了改善這個問題,才提出了幾種新的量測SWCC的方法。
  流量幫浦法(Flow Pump)是由Olsen在1966年提出來的,此方法首先應用於改善滲透係數的量測。在1991年Zindarcic等人提出了Maintained Suction Measurement和Hwang在2002年提出的Suction Drop Measurement兩種方法將流量幫浦運用到了量測SWCC的方法之中。在2011年Lee等人將兩個方法做出來的結果進行比較,分別對兩種發法列出其優點和缺點的部分,我們希望可以留下兩個方法的優點就是能有效的縮短實驗時間並且得到較好的實驗結果,所以我們提出了新的方法叫定流量幫浦法。
In general, geotechnical engineers use soil mechanics which pioneered by Karl Terzaghi to solve various kinds of geotechnical engineering problems. The assumption of the soil is either completely saturated or completely dry in this theory. However, there are many area is in unsaturated condition and many geotechnical engineering problems occurs in unsaturated condition. Therefore, understanding the unsaturated soil mechanics could prevent the improper design happen.
The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) play an important role in unsaturated soil mechanics. The SWCC represent the relationship between soil suction and soil water content. There are many methods and laboratory tests have been developed to evaluate and measure the SWCC over past decades. Among them, ASTM pressure plate test is widely used since its convenience and reliability. However, the experimental duration is too long about 1~3 months to obtain a SWCC and the specimen is stable or not is difficult to determine.
In this study, flow pump system, triaxial system, 3D printing technology, axis translation technique and modified suction drop method are combined to establish an experimental system of SWCC measurement method. Fine quartz sand, Vietnam quartz sand and Peng Hu calcareous sand are used as test material for this research. Results show that this experimental method is able to obtain the SWCC efficiently and cost less experimental duration.
ABSTRACT I
CONTENTS III
LIST OF FIGURES V
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Thesis Outline 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 Phase Relation for Unsaturated Soils 5
2.2 Soil suction 7
2.3 Soil-Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC) 8
2.4 Axis Translation Technique 11
2.5 Flow Pump Method 12
2.6 Flow Pump Method for SWCC Measurement 14
2.6.1 Maintained Suction Measurement 15
2.6.2 Suction Drop Measurement 18
2.6.3 Comparison of Two Measurement Methods 19
2.7 van Genuchten Model 23
2.8 Pressure plate method 24
Chapter 3 EQUIPMENTS AND SPECIMEN PREPARATION 26
3.1 Equipment 26
3.1.1 Flow Pump 26
3.1.2 Pressure Transducer 30
3.1.3 High Air Entry Ceramic Plates 32
3.1.4 Split Mold 36
3.1.5 Pressure plate 37
3.2 Material properties and Specimen Preparation 38
3.2.1 Material properties 38
3.2.2 Permeability Test 39
3.2.3 SWCC Test 40
3.2.4 Pressure Plate test 44
Chapter 4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 46
4.1 Permeability Test 46
4.1.1 Specimen Saturation 47
4.1.2 Flow Pump Test 49
4.2 SWCC Test 50
4.2.1 Specimen Saturation 52
4.2.2 SWCC Measurement Test 54
4.3 Pressure Plate Test 56
Chapter 5 RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS 57
5.1 Results of the Permeability Test 57
5.2 Results of the SWCC Test 61
5.3 Discussion of the SWCC Test 78
5.4 Results of the Pressure Plate Test 81
5.5 Discussion of the Pressure Plate Test 85
Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS 86
REFERENCES 88
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[2]ASTM C1699-09 (2015). “Standard Test Method for Moisture Retention Curves of Porous Building Materials Using Pressure Plates.”
[3]ASTM D6836-02 (2008). “Standard Test Methods for Determination of the Soil Water Characteristic Curve for Desorption Using Hanging Column, Pressure Extractor, Chilled Mirror Hygrometer, or Centrifuge.”
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[8]Hillel, D. (1982). “Introduction to Soil Physis.” Academic, San Diego, Calif.
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[10]Krahn, J. and Fredlund, D. G. (1972). “On total matric and osmotic suction.” Journal of Soil Science, 114(5), 339-348.
[11]Lee, J. (2011). “Limits to Continuity of Water Flow in Unsaturated, Compacted Soils.” Ph.D. thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
[12]Lee, J. and Znidarcic, D. (2013). “Flow Pump System for Unsaturated Soils: Measurement of Suction Response and the Soil-Water Retention Curve.” Geotechnical Testing Journal. 36(5).
[13]McCartney, J. S. (2007). “Determination of the Hydraulic Characteristics of Unsaturated Soils using a Centrifuge Permeameter,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
[14]Menezes, L. P. et al. (2015). “Determination of the Soil Water Retention Curve Using the Flow Pump.” R. Esc. Minas, Ouro Preto, 68(2), 207-213.
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[21]洪敬華 (2017),「藉由共振住試驗測定林口臺地不飽和紅土在小應變下的剪力模數及阻尼比」,碩士論文,國立台灣大學土木工程學系,台北。
[22]陳湧文 (2017),「定流量幫浦法應用於不飽和土壤水份特性曲線之量測」,碩士論文,國立台灣大學土木工程學系,台北。
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