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研究生:林必修
研究生(外文):Pi-Hsiu Lin
論文名稱:反金礦運動的性別化實踐:泰國黎府的婦女
論文名稱(外文):Gendered Practice of The Anti-Gold Mining Movement:Women in Loei, Thailand
指導教授:林開世林開世引用關係
口試委員:呂欣怡林育生
口試日期:2018-07-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:人類學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:人類學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:泰國性別環境運動金礦
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  • 被引用被引用:0
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本論文以泰國黎府反金礦運動的女性行動者為研究對象,探討女性在運動中扮演什麼樣的角色,以及性別角色又如何影響運動過程。本論文有三個主要部分:第一,在「家戶與儀式」的章節,一方面說明女性奠基在地方社會從妻居的傳統下形形成堅實的社群網絡;另一方面指出女性不僅在儀式中累積合作關係與信任基礎,也在抗爭脈絡下的儀式擴展出更多實踐空間;第二,在「金礦與橡膠」的章節,首先提供金礦開發進入前村民的經濟生活圖像與金礦開發進入後遭遇的負面影響。就在金礦開發進入的同時,橡膠也逐漸成為主流的經濟作物。割橡膠活動除了使得村民可以短期獲得現金,並且擁有自主調配勞動作息的空間,也讓返鄉參與抗爭的未婚女性能夠維持經濟獨立自主;第三,在「抗爭與女性」的章節,我檢視抗爭行動在事前規劃與行動現場女性從事的各種角色。其中,當衝突發生時,女性策略性的運用身體阻隔男性和軍人警察,以避免暴力上升。此外,在日常生活中,女性藉由定期會議和織布小組持續累積知識並凝聚認同。此研究除了在泰國環境運動的討論中納入性別實踐的觀點,也貢獻了三個思考泰國當代環境運動的切入點:分別是行動者肯認在地價值、在地村民與NGO團體的合作中有更多人權論述的運用以及金礦公司與村民的戰場延伸至法庭後,使得抗爭越來越專業化。
This study focuses on women activists of the anti-gold mining movement in Loei, Thailand, it tries to address roles of women in the movement and to find out how gender roles affect the process of the movement. This thesis is divided into three main parts. First, in the “Household and Ritual” chapter, I show that women possess deep social network as a result of matrilocality and that women accumulate trust and cooperation experience in the process of rituals. Second, in the “Gold Mine and Rubber” chapter, I show how gold-mining extraction effect villagers’ lives. At the same time, the rubber gradually became the main cash drop in the villages. Rubber tapping activities let villagers earn cash during a short time and adjust their own work period. Besides, it makes women maintain their financial independence. Third, in the “Resistance and Women” chapter, I examine the diverse roles that women play in the planning phase and in the protest scene. When conflicts occur, women always strategically use their bodies as tools, they will separate man and police or military to prevent a violent scene. In addition, women continuously gain knowledge and identity through regular meetings and the weaving group. This study not only suggests that gendered practice can be a new ground for rethinking environmental movements in Thailand but also adds to the Thai contemporary environmental movement studies by three points. First, actors recognize local value. Second, villagers and NGOs now use more human rights discourse. Third, the conflict between the company and the villagers have expanded to court and it makes the actors need to be more professional.
口試委員審定書 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
第一節 研究緣起 1
第二節 田野介紹與研究方法 2
一、 田野地介紹 2
二、 研究方法 4
第三節 文獻回顧 6
一、 反金礦運動中的性別 6
二、 泰國環境運動與運動中的性別 7
三、 性別與環境 13
第四節 章節安排 16
第二章 家戶與儀式 18
第一節 前言 18
第二節 泰國東北 19
一、 寮人進入呵叻高原之過程 19
二、 Isan的形成 20
三、 黎府 21
第三節 家戶與社區 23
一、 家戶與家屋的社交性 24
二、 社區 27
第四節 女性在信仰活動中的角色 29
一、 女性之於佛教 31
二、 女性之於神靈信仰 36
第五節 小結 43
第三章 金礦與橡膠 45
第一節 金礦開發進入之前沼澤村的經濟生活圖像 45
一、 1970年代以前:生計型農業和採集魚撈 45
二、 1970年-2000年之間:現金作物與移工的流行 47
第二節 金礦開發與其影響 51
一、 奪走人命的重金屬污染 51
二、 從「森林是我們的超市」到「這裡的特產是泰式酸辣蝦湯」 53
第三節 2000年前後興起的現金作物:橡膠 57
一、 「橡膠就像ATM一樣」 57
二、 割橡膠活動與反金礦抗爭 62
第四節 小結 64
第四章 抗爭與女性 65
第一節 十年一瞬 65
一、 「一開始我們什麼不懂」 65
二、 污染現形 66
三、 衝突擴大 69
四、 鄉議會的角力 76
五、 新階段 78
第二節 重新結構的性別主體 79
一、 行動的組織動員 79
二、 和不同權力互動的女性 81
第三節 交織於日常的抵抗 89
一、 會議 89
二、 零星的突發事件 93
三、 織布抗礦 94
第四節 小結 97
第五章 結論 99
第一節 東北女性之於黎府反金礦抗爭 99
第二節 當代環境運動 100
第三節 空缺的男性 101
第四節 研究限制 103
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