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研究生:陳佳吟
研究生(外文):Chia-Yin Chen
論文名稱:餐飲業燒烤煙霧暴露之健康風險評估
論文名稱(外文):Health Risk Assessment of Oil Fumes from Indoor Barbecue Restaurants
指導教授:李慧梅李慧梅引用關係
指導教授(外文):Whei-May Lee
口試委員:余國賓黃小林
口試日期:2018-07-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:環境工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:燒烤餐飲烹飪油煙多環芳香烴勞工作業場所容許暴露標準健康風險評估
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近年來國人飲食消費型態的轉變,外食人口比例大幅增加,而燒烤餐廳室內多為密閉空間,燒烤油煙易累積而造成室內空氣污染,且以餐廳工作人員為暴露高危險群,而消費族群亦蒙受其害。因此,本研究以台北市由廚師進行燒烤作業之6家日式串燒餐廳為對象,進行用餐區(外場)和燒烤作業區(內場)區域採樣以及燒烤作業人員個人採樣,依採樣結果探討餐廳工作人員及消費族群之健康風險危害程度。
由6家燒烤餐廳採樣結果顯示,內場PM2.5暴露濃度介於55.64 ~ 140.37 μg/m3,外場則介於8.32 ~ 85.24 μg/m3,內場顯著高於外場(p-value < 0.05);氣固相PAHs暴露濃度方面,以燒烤人員總PAHs暴露濃度最高(370.2 ~ 10453.8 ng/m3),而6家燒烤餐廳BaP毒性當量(BaPeq)平均暴露濃度,亦以燒烤人員為最高(4.99 ± 5.29 ng/m3),氣固相PAHs主要皆以氣相為主,其中又以Naphthalene為主要物種;醛類化合物以甲醛及乙醛為主要物種,內場甲醛暴露濃度介於5.20 ~ 12.61 ppb,乙醛則介於4.87 ~ 15.31 ppb,外場方面甲醛暴露濃度介於3.80 ~ 22.66 ppb,而乙醛則介於7.98 ~ 14.81 ppb之間;VOCs以苯、甲苯、乙苯及二甲苯為主要物種,內場平均總VOCs暴露濃度為15.25 ± 12.55 ppb,外場則為12.96 ± 8.16 ppb;金屬/非金屬元素部分,以鋁、硼、鐵、鉀、鎂及鋅為主要物種,6家燒烤餐廳內場金屬/非金屬元素平均濃度大小依序為鉀 > 鐵 > 鋁 > 鎂 > 硼 > 鋅 > 鋇 > 鉛 > 銅 > 錳 > 鉻,而外場大小則依序為鐵 > 鉀 > 鋁 > 鎂 > 硼 > 鋅 > 鋇 > 鉛 > 銅 > 錳 > 鉻。
由6家燒烤餐廳各污染物暴露濃度進行健康風險評估,致癌風險方面,6家燒烤餐廳平均總致癌風險以燒烤人員為最高(男性:6.99×10-6;女性:4.79×10-6),以消費族群為最低(男性:1.15×10-6;女性:7.49×10-7),6家燒烤餐廳總致癌風險普遍高於致癌風險標準值10-6,而各物種所占比例,以鉻為最高(33.9 ~ 46.9%),其次為BaPeq(21.2 ~ 42.4%)及甲醛(15.7 ~ 30.7%);非致癌風險方面,6家燒烤餐廳平均非致癌風險以燒烤人員為最高(男性:HI = 1.329;女性:HI = 0.988),以消費族群為最低(男性:HI = 0.014;女性:HI = 0.010),6家燒烤餐廳男性工作人員非致癌風險普遍高於非致癌風險標準值HI = 1,女性工作人員則接近標準值,表示對人體可能具有危害性,而各污染物所占比例,以乙醛為最高(35.5 ~ 41.1%),其次為甲醛(20.7 ~ 28.7%)。
由本研究結果顯示,6家燒烤餐廳各污染物暴露濃度均低於國內外勞工作業場所容許暴露標準,然6家燒烤餐廳致癌及非致癌風險皆達高風險情形,應予以正視,並考量加嚴規範標準,且各污染物濃度與其對應之風險值並無全然之相關性,污染物之毒理參數亦應列入考慮,而個人採樣污染物濃度及暴露風險程度普遍高於區域採樣,顯示以個人採樣方式能更準確評估烹飪人員實際暴露情形。
Recently, people change their consumption pattern. The proportion of the population who usually eat out has greatly increased. Indoor barbecue restaurants have become popular in Taiwan. Because of the enclosed space in the restaurants, the cooking fumes from indoor barbecue are easy to accumulate and result in the deterioration of indoor air quality. It is obvious that restaurants employees are at high health risk due to being exposed to the cooking fumes at the workplace in the long-term period and the consumers are also suffered from it. In this study, six charcoal barbecue restaurants in Taipei Area were targeted. The sampling and analysis of the restaurants include not only kitchen and dining areas but also personal exposure sampling of PAHs for chefs. Base on the sampling results, the health risks of the restaurants’ employees and the consumers were evaluated.
The results of sampling and analysis show that the concentrations of PM2.5 in kitchen are higher than those in dining area. The concentrations of PM2.5 in kitchen are between 55.64 to 140.37 µg/m3 and range from 8.32 to 85.24 µg/m3 in dining area. Of all the restaurants, PAHs are mainly partitioned on the gaseous phase. Naphthalene is the dominant species. The concentration of total PAHs was the highest for barbecue chefs (range from 370.2 to 10453.8 ng/m3). In addition, the BaP toxic equivalent concentration was the maximum for barbecue chefs (4.99 ± 5.29 ng/m3). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are the dominant species of the carbonyls. The formaldehyde concentrations range from 5.20 to 12.61 ppb and acetaldehyde concentrations are between 4.87 to 15.31 ppb in kitchen area. As for dining area, formaldehyde concentrations range from 3.80 to 22.66 ppb and acetaldehyde concentrations are within 7.98 and 14.81 ppb. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes are the dominant species of VOCs. The average concentration of total volatile organic compounds is 15.25 ± 12.55 ppb and 12.96 ± 8.16 ppb in kitchen and dining area respectively. The elements are mainly composed of aluminum, boron, iron, potassium, magnesium and zinc. The average concentration of the elements in the kitchen in order is potassium > iron > aluminum > magnesium > boron > zinc > barium > lead > copper > manganese > chromium and iron > potassium > aluminum > magnesium > boron > zinc > barium > lead > copper > manganese > chromium in dining area.
As far as the risk assessment of cancer-inducing and non-cancer-inducing factors are concerned, the cancer risk of the six barbecue restaurants was the highest among the barbecue chefs (male: 6.99×10-6; female: 4.79×10-6) and the lowest for the consumers (male: 1.15×10-6; female: 7.49×10-7). The total cancer risk of the six barbecue restaurants is higher than the cancer risk standard value of 10-6. The proportion of chromium is the highest of all the species (33.9 ~ 46.9%) and follow by BaPeq (21.2 ~ 42.4%) and formaldehyde (15.7 ~ 30.7%). As for the hazard index, the barbecue chefs was also the highest (male: HI = 1.329; female: HI = 0.988) and the lowest for the consumers (male: HI = 0.014; female: HI = 0.010). The non-cancer risk of male staffs is greater than the non-cancer risk standard value HI = 1. The proportion of acetaldehyde is the highest of all the species (35.5 ~ 41.1%) and follow by formaldehyde (20.7 ~ 28.7%).
In this study, the concentrations of the six barbecue restaurants are lower than the permissible exposure limits (PELs). However, the cancer and non-cancer risks of the six barbecue restaurants are in high-risk situations, which should be concerned. Moreover, the concentration of each pollutant is not completely related to its corresponding risk. The toxicity of the pollutant should also be concerned. Furthermore individual sampling improved the accuracy of the exposure risk of the barbecue chefs.
誌謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract IV
目錄 VI
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XI
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究內容與架構 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 國內外室內空氣品質標準 4
2.2 燒烤餐飲空氣污染 13
2.3 中式餐飲空氣污染 20
2.4 健康風險評估方法 25
2.4.1 化學成分健康風險評估 25
2.4.2 流行病學健康風險評估 29
2.5 餐飲業空氣污染健康風險評估 30
第三章 研究材料與方法 40
3.1 餐廳選定與採樣規劃 40
3.1.1 樣本餐廳選定 40
3.1.2 採樣規劃 40
3.2 採樣分析材料及儀器設備 41
3.2.1 藥品與材料 41
3.2.2 儀器與設備 42
3.3 PM2.5採樣與分析 43
3.4 多環芳香烴(PAHS)採樣與分析 46
3.4.1 採樣方法 47
3.4.2 PAHs樣本分析 48
3.4.3 定性定量及內標準品添加分析之品質控制 49
3.5 醛類化合物採樣與分析 60
3.5.1 藥品配置 60
3.5.2 採樣與分析 60
3.5.3 定性定量及數據品保品管 62
3.5.4 醛類化合物濃度計算 66
3.6 揮發性有機物(VOCS)採樣與分析 66
3.6.1 採樣與分析 67
3.6.2 檢量線製作 69
3.6.3 揮發性有機物濃度計算 71
3.7 金屬/非金屬元素採樣與分析 72
3.7.1 藥品配置 72
3.7.2 微波消化與ICP-OES分析 72
3.7.3 金屬/非金屬元素濃度計算 73
3.8 健康風險評估架構與情境假設 74
3.8.1 危害辨識 74
3.8.2 劑量效應評估 76
3.8.3 暴露評估 78
3.8.4 風險特徵描述 82
第四章 結果與討論 84
4.1 燒烤餐廳基本特性分析 85
4.2 燒烤作業區及用餐區PM2.5暴露濃度 87
4.2.1 PM2.5手動(濾紙秤重)濃度 87
4.2.2 自動監測PM2.5濃度 90
4.3 燒烤作業區、用餐區及個人PAHS暴露濃度 94
4.4 燒烤作業區及用餐區醛類化合物暴露濃度 112
4.5 燒烤作業區及用餐區VOCS暴露濃度 117
4.6 燒烤作業區及用餐區金屬/非金屬元素暴露濃度 123
4.7 健康風險評估 130
4.7.1 致癌風險評估 130
4.7.2 非致癌風險評估 137
第五章 結論與建議 143
5.1 結論 143
5.2 建議 145
參考文獻 146
附錄 A 6家燒烤餐廳非致癌風險危害商數(HQ) 154
附錄 B口試委員意見 159
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