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研究生:陳宣霈
研究生(外文):Hsuan-Pei Chen
論文名稱:農用噴灑多旋翼載具
論文名稱(外文):Multi-rotor For Agriculture
指導教授:林煥榮
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立虎尾科技大學
系所名稱:飛機工程系航空與電子科技碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:多旋翼無人飛行載具直升機農藥農業霧滴噴灑水敏紙
外文關鍵詞:AgricultureDroneUAVMulti-rotorSprayWater-sensitive Pape
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近幾年來無人飛行載具(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV)的發展成熟。其中又以多旋翼無人飛行載具(Multi-Rotor UAV )的發展最為熱門,其優點在於可以垂直起降、定點滯空和慢速巡航等特性,除了與飛機有明顯差別外比直升機的穩定性更好,操作上也較為簡單。
隨著台灣農村年輕人口外移及人口高齡化導致勞動力逐漸降低,這將影響農產品生產成本及效率,為減少農民種植之成本及改善效率本實驗室以自製大酬載之長滯空多旋翼為參考並改良設計出農用噴灑多旋翼載具,利用多旋翼機的特性來協助農民進行農藥噴灑,可使農民避免吸入過多農藥同時減少農民體力的負擔。
本文除了自製農用噴灑多旋翼載具,並針對其常見的霧滴飄散做噴灑效果測試,本文針對不同噴嘴進行噴灑後所產生的不同飄散情況,利用水敏紙收集霧滴分佈後進行簡易判讀,可以發現高度以及速度在無風情況下對飄散影響較小,在有風情況下影響較大容易造成飄散。
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has matured in recent years. Among them, the development of multi-rotor vehicle is the most popular, and its advantages include vertical takeoff and landing, and hovering characteristics, hence it is significantly different from fixed-wing aircraft, more stable than the helicopter and it’s operation is simple.
With the outflow of young rural population in Taiwan and the aging of the rural population, the labor force will be gradually reduced, which will affect the cost and efficiency of agricultural production. In order to reduce the cost of farmers'' planting and improve the efficiency, the lab uses self-designed long endurance multi-rotor vehicles for large payloads and improved the design of agricultural spraying multi-rotor vehicles by means of multi-rotor aircraft to help farmers with pesticides spraying so that farmers can avoid inhalation of excessive pesticides while reducing the burden of farmers'' physical strength.
In this paper, besides using self-designed agricultural spraying multi-rotor vehicles to test the effect for common drift of droplets by different nozzle spray generated after the drift, the water-sensitive paper is used to collect the distribution of droplets for easy interpretation. It can be found that the altitude and speed have less influence on the drift when there is no wind, and the drift is more likely to occur in a windy condition.
中文摘要.................................................i
英文摘要 ................................................ii
誌謝...................................................iii
目錄....................................................iv
表目錄..................................................vi
圖目錄.................................................vii
第一章 緒論
1.1 前言.........................................1
1.2 文獻回顧......................................1
1.3 研究動機......................................8
1.4 論文架構......................................9
第二章 台灣農業現況與植保機
2.1 台灣農業現況.................................10
2.2 植保機簡介...................................11
2.3 多旋翼飛行原理...............................14
2.3.1 四旋翼數學模型.....................17
第三章 飛行裝備與地面系統
3.1 飛行裝備.....................................23
3.2 飛行控制系統.................................29
3.3 酬載系統.....................................34
3.4 地面站設備...................................39
第四章 多軸旋翼機設計與製作
4.1 多軸旋翼機設計概念............................41
4.2 噴灑系統.....................................49
4.3 動力系統.....................................53
第五章 地面作業與飛行測試
5.1 電子變速器形成校準............................59
5.2 飛控系統韌體安裝.............................62
5.3 韌體錯誤排除.................................65
5.4 地面設定與調整...............................66
5.4.1 PID控制器與原理....................66
5.4.2 PID調整...........................67
5.4.3 Auto mode.........................69
5.5 飛行前檢查...................................70
5.6 地面測試.....................................71
5.61 水泵測試............................71
5.6.2 馬達測試...........................71
5.6.3 地面噴灑測試.......................73
5.7 飛行測試.....................................76
第六章 結論與未來展望
6.1 結論與未來展望..............................101
參考文獻................................................103
Extended Abstract......................................110
簡歷...................................................113
[1]達文西繪製的撲翼機具
https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E7%84%A1%E4%BA%BA%E8%88%AA%E7%A9%BA%E8%BC%89%E5%85%B7
[2]達文西繪製的撲翼機
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwi01M2TuNrYAhUKn5QKHUyxBfIQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fkknews.cc%2Fnews%2F68x3jyv.html&psig=AOvVaw2s9QRqyAs1HVIUiUwI8wc9&ust=1516121843160263
[3]飛行者一號
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiby-S6udrYAhVDjZQKHfcLCCsQjhwIBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fzhidao.baidu.com%2Fquestion%2F330488663196780925.html&psig=AOvVaw12hykR-bgXZVxD05izpduE&ust=1516122181628017
[4]Kettering Bug
https://kknews.cc/zh-tw/agriculture/2ayprz.html
[5]Kettering Bug
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjIvbiLutrYAhUFjJQKHTaiA6QQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FKettering_Bug&psig=AOvVaw1cUHKbR0HZfX570G9rcto0&ust=1516122336481194
[6]世界農用飛機的發展與未來展望
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kettering_Bug
[7]農藥飛機
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwif3YH9u9rYAhXBLpQKHTP0AFgQjhwIBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.woweiquan.com%2Fdetail%2F11%2F139046.html&psig=AOvVaw3t4GRYB9Ol6j78TD1MEv94&ust=1516122875132477
[8]飛艇噴灑農藥示意圖
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiB9M3HvNrYAhVJoZQKHbGqD5MQjhwIBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fainaidea.com%2Finteresnoe%2Ftermalnyj-dirizhabl-umenshaet-zatr-8519.html&psig=AOvVaw3OdKaL67kL6is6yURVnFeT&ust=1516123031861962
[9]達文西繪製直升機草圖
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiV3tvovNrYAhVBGJQKHSGpBKwQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fleonardo-vinci.weebly.com%2Fhis-most-famous-inventions.html&psig=AOvVaw2ehjASbfpM0Iq7r7ux8t9D&ust=1516123099018394
[10]直升機
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%9B%B4%E5%8D%87%E6%A9%9F
[11]VS-300
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj27aSFvdrYAhUHF5QKHS1rDlgQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FVought-Sikorsky_VS-300&psig=AOvVaw0q9XDv6UiMQufUVFBhp4TA&ust=1516123160135403
[12]農藥直升機
https://read01.com/QeNyOA.html#.Wl1Xf6iWZPY
[13]Yamaha 農藥直升機
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjv16GhrdvYAhVDwLwKHRPtAFQQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.siciliaagricoltura.it%2F2017%2F07%2F08%2F9560%2Famp%2F&psig=AOvVaw3KgOcSKHH9K0t_RXF-7x4a&ust=1516153283816441
[14]Breguet-Richet Gyroplane
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breguet-Richet_Gyroplane
[15]de Bothezat helicopter
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Bothezat_helicopter
[16]Breguet–Richet 四旋翼
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwik2M3mrdvYAhXLmpQKHTlFDDcQjhwIBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fhelikopterhysteriezwo.blogspot.com%2Fp%2Fchoppers-helos.html&psig=AOvVaw3eB_mQGFLHK0YAt6xFw5pm&ust=1516153430214006
[17]四軸飛行器https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%9B%9B%E8%BD%B4%E9%A3%9E%E8%A1%8C%E5%99%A8
[18]De Bothezat 四旋翼
https://www.getit01.com/p2017112926768/
[19]四旋翼無人機
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwir35uysdvYAhXCHJQKHZTBAcEQjhwIBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fflight-evolved.com%2Ftarot-650-sport-build%2F&psig=AOvVaw1Dv0T--3h-fM1iTlVKFA7j&ust=1516154391711478
[20]DJI MG-1
https://www.dji.com/zh-tw/mg-1
[21]瑞里茶園
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjP0pP-wJbQAhWIyrwKHf8_CBYQjhwIBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcyberisland.teldap.tw%2Ffeature%2Fsey&psig=AFQjCNHjOaKChNHneZDx_ATOr0StWcbk8w&ust=1478603385829630
[22]農藥代噴
https://www.newsmarket.com.tw/blog/85745/
[23]噴農藥
http://blog.udn.com/martti/267642
[24]Yamaha直升機
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjF-riitdvYAhWIVZQKHfwWBboQjhwIBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fopsecure.info%2F20170725074503_rmax-drone%2F&psig=AOvVaw0H1tXGZwv8CZqMKZM_t52v&ust=1516155432677914
[25]DJI MG-1S
http://www.dronenerds.com/products/drones/enterprise-drones/argas-mg-1s/dji-agras-mg-1s-octocopter-argriculture-drone-craft-only-mg1scraft-dji.html
[26]零度智控植保機
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjxl-GDttvYAhWFpJQKHeWxDNUQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.dronesplayer.com%2F9035%2F%25E5%2596%25AE%25E6%258C%2591%25E5%25A4%25A7%25E7%2596%2586-%25E9%259B%25B6%25E5%25BA%25A6%25E6%2599%25BA%25E6%258E%25A7%25E6%258E%25A8%25E5%25AE%2588%25E8%25AD%25B7%25E8%2580%2585-z10-%25E9%2580%2590%25E9%25B9%25BF%25E8%25BE%25B2%25E7%2594%25A8%25E7%2584%25A1%25E4%25BA%25BA%25E6%25A9%259F%25E5%25B8%2582%25E5%25A0%25B4%2F&psig=AOvVaw0IMgVTdVn7bCBRLJjjPIh8&ust=1516155637008391
[27]極飛植保機
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjzu4m4ttvYAhUCHZQKHZ09B3sQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.zhihu.com%2Fquestion%2F68152876&psig=AOvVaw0avR-lNJDuOv_EC-BdTBqR&ust=1516155719373304
[28]李建緯,”地面供電之長滯空多旋翼機設計與研製”,虎尾科技大學航空與電子科技碩士班碩士論文,2015
[29]Free body diagram of a quad‐rotor helicopter
https://www.intechopen.com
[30]M. Kamran Joyo, D. Hazry, S. Faiz Ahmed, M. Hassan Tanveer, Faizan. A. Warsi, A. T. Hussain, “Altitude and Horizontal Motion Control of Quadrotor UAV in the Presence of Air Turbulence”, proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Conference on Systems, Process & Control (ICSPC2013), 13 - 15 December 2013, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[31]陳昀希,”四旋翼機之穩定與控制”,逢甲大學航太與系統工程學系碩士論文,2012。
[32]無刷馬達
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjIktnpvNvYAhWGqJQKHZTuDfIQjhwIBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.omgfly.com%2Ftmotor-u10-plus-kv80-100-170-p-2504.html&psig=AOvVaw3FVkwkKg5o0d5S9YlHdp6b&ust=1516157459527364
[33]螺旋槳
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj8iM7ovNvYAhWJlJQKHYDbABYQjhwIBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dronera.no%2Fproduct%2F29x9-5-carbon-fiber-prop-pair%2F&psig=AOvVaw2QH7l1TPLFD-OBsgjP6QFL&ust=1516157460052133
[34]電子變速器
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiVxfvWvtvYAhVMGpQKHbXOAesQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.alibaba.com%2Fshowroom%2Fhobbywing-esc.html&psig=AOvVaw0vTYi9cUIkVk-gHBO3rVNL&ust=1516157960630353
[35]3DR
https://3dr.com/
[36]Pixhawk
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiZxMPjv9vYAhWLlZQKHdrhAaMQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mondrone.net%2Fpixhawk-nouveau-controleur-de-vol-32bits%2F&psig=AOvVaw2seYnkmIPv0jkOWgeg3xTg&ust=1516158246818988

[37]Pixhawk接線圖
http://copter.ardupilot.tw
[38]Telemetry radio
https://store.3dr.com/products/915-mhz-telemetry-radio
[39]XBee PRO無線傳輸模組
https://www.digi.com/products/xbee-rf-solutions/2-4-ghz-modules/xbee-zigbee#specifications
[40]GPS
http://deakym-word.blogspot.tw/2009/10/gps.html
[41]M8N
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjJ9amswtvYAhVBKJQKHTdwA9UQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.unmannedtechshop.co.uk%2Fublox-neo-m8n-gps-with-compass-rom%2F&psig=AOvVaw1uKaFyTBXAHXqHrNPzddit&ust=1516158821117401
[42]10公升防震盪水箱
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=16&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjhqb-ow9vYAhWDxrwKHbXNAyMQFghWMA8&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.thanksbuyer.com%2F10l-pesticide-storage-box-case-anti-shock-with-spacer-for-fixed-wing-airplane-white-42785&usg=AOvVaw2pr406sn_2F6EiFnk9iqKS
[43]15公升水箱
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjXr5XWw9vYAhWCzLwKHTQGCgwQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.aliexpress.com%2Fcp%2Fspraying-systems-online-shopping.html&psig=AOvVaw28Y8eGYZmWmkU0bPE766dp&ust=1516159301203609
[44]Lechler Nozzle
http://www.lechler.de/Nozzle-Technology/Agriculture/Basic-Knowledge/-cb36p_AAAB6DwAAAE6K0kbsGlh-en_US
[45]霧滴分佈關鍵
http://www.nongjinongyi.com/zhongdetial.aspx?id=175
[46]LECHLER防風噴嘴
https://item.taobao.com/item.htm?spm=a230r.1.14.30.2d4c2189TzsOWO&id=45928104042&ns=1&abbucket=10#detail
[47]噴嘴規格
http://www.lechler.de/is-bin/intershop.static/WFS/LechlerDE-Shop-Site/LechlerDE-Shop/en_US/PDF/05_service_support/landtechnik/downloads/englisch/idk-idkn_katalogflyer_0616_gb.pdf
[48]水試紙
http://drops.i-think.es/home/agriculture
[49]管夾
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwjrzObEiNbUAhUFjJQKHYuiAO4QjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.jonathan.it%2Fdroni%2Faccessori%2Fflange%2Bper%2Btubi%2Ftarot%2F559036_flangia-in-alluminio-tubo-16mm-iron-man-650%2Bfy680.html&psig=AFQjCNGtDJPYr0chQJlm64t7NGiElupz8w&ust=1498379437943893
[50]馬達支架與馬達座
https://www.jonathan.it/multirotori/esarotori/frame/tarot/550333_frame-t810-esarotore-tutto-carbonio.html
[51]美規線徑
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%BE%8E%E5%9B%BD%E7%BA%BF%E8%A7%84
[52]Hobbywing ESC
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjikurckuHUAhWCNpQKHb6yAjIQjhwIBQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.aliexpress.com%2Fpopular%2Fhobbywing-80a-esc.html&psig=AFQjCNE8MBWsgRm2IGKdITyyFyU2TpKYig&ust=1498760057001841
[53]PID介紹
https://read01.com/8zQKed.html
[54]PID調整
https://wenku.baidu.com/view/d4556ae26f1aff00bed51e85.html?pn=50
[55]PID系統圖
http://ardupilot.org/plane/docs/roll-pitch-controller-tuning.html
[56]車用噴嘴
http://blog.machinefinder.com/22588/guide-john-deere-sprayer-nozzles
[57]各種水敏紙判讀軟體比較
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/groundcover/ground-cover-supplements/ground-cover-issue-122-spray-application/app-provides-snappy-spray-assessment



[58]農用飛機噴灑測試
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282120307_Evaluating_effective_swath_width_and_droplet_distribution_of_aerial_spraying_systems_on_M-18B_and_Thrush_510G_airplanes
[59]農用多旋翼機噴灑施肥系統
https://www.google.com/patents/US20140303814
[60]農用多旋翼機植物辨識
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266209562_Insights_and_recommendations_of_use_of_UAV_platforms_in_precision_agriculture_in_Brazil
電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20230206)
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