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研究生:劉峻豪
研究生(外文):Chun-Hao Liu
論文名稱:雙旋翼飛行器之設計與實作
論文名稱(外文):The Design and Implementation of a Twincopter
指導教授:徐元寶徐元寶引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立虎尾科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:比例-積分-微分控制器無人機雙旋翼現場可程式化閘陣列
外文關鍵詞:PIDDroneTwincopterFPGA
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本論文旨在設計並實現一雙旋翼飛行器。本系統以比例-積分-微分(Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller, PID)控制法則,根據姿態航向感測器(Attitude and Heading Reference System, AHRS)傳來的飛行器姿態資料推算所需的控制量,分別控制四顆馬達(兩顆為縱向傾斜馬達,兩顆為推力馬達),以達到控制飛行器穩定飛行的目標。本研究使用以現場可程式化閘陣列(Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA)為核心之硬體平台,整體的雙旋翼機構為自行設計,並自行撰寫整個飛行控制程式,所完成的雙旋翼飛行系統可利用智慧型手機控制其飛行,實現垂直起飛、降落、懸停和姿態穩定等飛行動作。
In this thesis, we design and implement a twincopter. The twincopter system uses the PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) control method, according to twincopter’s attitude measured by a AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System), to calculate appropriate control values for the four motors (two servo motors and two DC motors) to achieve the goal of stable flight. This work uses a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) cored platform being the flight control system and the mechanism of drone is designed from scratch as well as the flight control code. The resulting system can be remote controlled by smart phones for realizing the tasks of hovering, vertical takeoff and landing.
摘要 ................................ .... i
Abstract ............................. ... ii
誌謝 .................................... iii
目錄 .................................. .. iv
表目錄 ............................. ..... vi
圖目錄 .................................... ix
第一章 緒論 ............................... 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 ......................... 1
1.2 文獻探討 ...... ....................... 2
1.3 研究方法 .................. ........... 4
1.4 論文架構 .................. ........... 6
第二章 雙旋翼飛行器系統數學模型.. ........... 7
2.1 簡介................................... 7
2.2 旋轉矩陣 ................... ........... 8
2.3 雙旋翼飛行器數學模型 ................... 12
第三章 PID控制器設計 ....................... 16
3.1 PID控制器設計 .......................... 16
3.2 旋轉方程式換控制量 .... ................. 17
第四章 雙旋翼機構與系統設計 ................. 19
4.1 雙旋翼整體機構 .......................... 19
4.2 雙旋翼轉軸設計........................... 20
4.3 硬體設備 ................................ 21
4.4 FPGA開發平台............................. 25
4.5 軟體開發環境 ............................ 25
4.6 Visual Studio開發平台 ................... 26
4.7 系統整合 ...................... ......... 26
第五章 模擬與實驗結果 模擬與實驗結果........... 31
5.1 Matlab模擬 ........................ .... 31
5.2 雙旋翼實驗 ........................ ..... 34
第六章 結論與未來展望 結論與未來展望........... 41
6.1 討論 與結.......................... ..... 41
6.2 本研究之貢獻........................... . 42
6.3 未來展望 ...................... ......... 42
參考文獻..................................... 43
Extended Abstract ................. ......... 45
簡歷 ...................................... . 55
[1] 雙旋翼直升機, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Cornu
[2] 亞馬遜送貨無人機, https://www.amazon.com/b?node=8037720011
[3] Nixie穿戴式無人機, http://flynixie.com/
[4] Lily Camera,https://www.lily.camera/
[5] GHOSTDRONE 2.0,http://www.ehang.com/cn/ghost2.0.html
[6] DAx8無人機, http://www.droneamerica.com/systems/dax8
[7] 施博堂 ,“以 SoPC實現具物體追蹤功能之四旋翼飛行器 ,”虎尾科技大學碩士 虎尾科技大學碩士 論文 , 2013
[8] Syed Ali Raza and Wail Gueaieb, “Intelligent Flight Control of an Autonomous Quadrotor,” Canada, Federico Casolo (Ed.), 2010
[9] V-22 Osprey,http://www.boeing.com/boeing/rotorcraft/military/v22/
[10] 阿凡達戰機, https://goo.gl/rDSA14
[11] Farid Kendoul, Isabelle Fantoni, Rogelio Lozano, “Modeling and control of a small autonomous aircraft having two tilting rotors,” IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, and the European Control Conference, Seville, Spain, 2005 [12] Christos Papachristos, “Design, Control, and Autonomous Navigation of Tilt–Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,” PhD Dissertation Nr: 330, PATRAS, Estonia, 2015 [13] Christos Papachristos, Kostas Alexis, and Anthony Tzes, “Design and Experimental Attitude Control of an Unmanned Tilt–Rotor Aerial Vehicle,” The 15th International Conference on Advanced Robotics Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia, 2011
[14] Arindam Bhanja Chowdhury, Anil Kulhare and Gaurav Raina, “A generalized control method for a tilt-rotor uav stabilization,” IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), 2012, pp. 309–314
[15] Juan-Antonio Escareño, Sergio Salazar-Cruz and Rogelio Lozano, “Attitude Stabilization of a Convertible Mini Birotor,” Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE, International Conference on Control Applications, Munich Germany, 2006
[16] 王若衡 ,“雙傾旋翼無人飛機之系統模型與控制平台建立 ,”國立成功大 學碩士 論文 , 2009
[17] Charles Blouin and Eric Lanteigne, “Pitch Control of an Oblique Active Tilting Bi-Rotor,” International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), Orlando, FL, USA, 2014
44
[18] Fernando Silvano Gonçalves, João Paulo Bodanese, Rodrigo Donadel, Guilherme V. Raffo, Julio Elias Normey-Rico and Leandro Buss Becker, “Small Scale UAV with Birotor Configuration,” International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Grand Hyatt Atlanta, 2013 [19] Luis Arturo Ruiz Brito, “Control of A 3DOF Birotor Helicopter Using Robust Control Methods,” Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements or the degree of Master Of Science, 2009
[20] Anand Sanchez-Orta, Juan-Antonio Escareño, Octavio Garcia and Rogelio Lozano, “Autonomous Hovering of a Noncyclic Tiltrotor UAV: Modeling, Control and Implementation,” Proceedings of the 17th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control, Seoul, Korea, 2008
[21] M-ROTOR,http://m-rotor.com/page/?p=257
[22] Mini Twincopter,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zKTtPawq4Q
[23] Tiltrotor,https://goo.gl/Kc6faV
[24] Dys直流無刷馬達, http://www.dys.hk/ProductShow.asp?ID=129
[25] 伺服馬達, https://goo.gl/N8ydc3
[26] 電子調速器, https://goo.gl/qUh5Jt
[27] Wi-Fi模組, https://goo.gl/5jFsnB
[28] Wi-Fi攝像模組, http://www.netopsun.com/product/class/?2.html
[29] Nokia LCD5110,https://goo.gl/dTd2VY
[30] Orientus感測器, https://goo.gl/ooz8mU
[31] Altera DE0-Nano,https://goo.gl/RTzn6Q
[32] Nios II Eclipse Software Development,https://goo.gl/jcGbta
[33] Visual Studio,https://goo.gl/up7WVk
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