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研究生:洪佳宇
研究生(外文):Chia-Yu Hung
論文名稱:以語言學角度分析臺灣饒舌歌中的文化價值觀:語碼轉換與面子威脅行為
論文名稱(外文):Unfolding Cultural Values Hidden in Taiwan Rap Songs from the Linguistic Point of View: Codes-witching and Face-threatening Speech Acts
指導教授:洪媽益洪媽益引用關係
指導教授(外文):Michael Tanangkingsing
口試委員:黃瑞恆林含怡
口試委員(外文):Rui-Heng HuangHan-Yi Lin
口試日期:2018-01-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:應用英文系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:語氣情緒文化饒舌歌面子威脅行為語碼轉換
外文關鍵詞:TonesEmotionsCultureMusicRapFace-threateningCode-switching
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語碼轉換現象可於對話中及歌曲多發現,此現象是受發話者的文化背景的影響而產生,因而這樣的轉換發生時往往會攜帶額外的意涵(Myers-Scotton, 1993; Bentahila & Davies, 2002)給聽話者。饒舌歌是一種介於說與唱之間的音樂類型,而臺灣饒舌歌承襲了黑人音樂的特色,也加入了許多臺灣文化中特有的多語言轉換。此外,在危脅到面子的衝突情況中,也有研究顯示語言轉換現象不僅能夠深化衝突(Gross, 2000),也夠緩和這樣的衝突情形(Su, 2001)。因此,本研究以前述這些研究為基礎,來探討臺灣饒舌歌具有衝突語言行為的歌詞中,語言轉換行為的目的與功能。本研究蒐集了579個具面子威脅行為的語言轉換字詞句,並依據歌詞的情緒語氣分類,來加以分析語言轉換在衝突語言行為中的目的與功能,進而理解語言轉換時的表現如何受文化影響。研究分析發現,語言轉換現象不只能作為字詞借用(Albakry & Hancock, 2008)或押韻及意義傳達(Davies & Bentahila, 2008),也能夠表現不同的情緒,並在特定情緒中加強語氣,以蓄意達到面子威脅的結果。此外,本研究也發現,除了如同Gross (2000)提出語言轉換在對話中能夠暫時產生權力翻轉的效果,以掌控對話主權;也發現語言轉換能產生強調權力差距的效果,以彰顯發話者的強勢與優勢。
Codes-switching (hereafter CS) deployed in conversations and songs indexes some rights and obligations sets stimulated by one’s cultural and historical meanings of the languages (Myers-Scotton, 1993; Bentahila and Davies, 2002). Rap music in Taiwan, a music genre lying between spoken form and literary form, inherits the rebellious and confronting attributes from its Afro-American predecessor, and also blends in the traits of the spoken and literary CS. Additionally, in a confronting scenario, CS can be adopted as a strategy for face-attacking to gain control in a conversation (Gross, 2000) or as mitigation to deal with it (Su, 2001). Grounded on these previous studies, 579 tokens of code-switching in Taiwan rap music were used to examine the CS employed in each kind of emotional tones of face-threatening lyrics to see the purposes and functions of CS stimulated by the rap performer’s cultural values. The findings show that marked codes not only serve as the lexical borrowing (Albakry and Hacock, 2008) or poetic functions (Davies & Bentahila, 2008) such as rhyming. Code-switching expressions also asserts different emotions to intensify the certain moods to attain face-threatening acts. Further, it could cause damage to face through either overturn (Gross, 2000) or consolidate the power disparity between speakers and hearers to claim the authority of utterances.
Abstract (Chinese) i
Abstract (English) ii
Acknowledgements iii
Table of Contents iv
Lists of Tables vi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Development of Rap Songs in Taiwan 2
1.2 Research Motivations 7
1.3 Significance of the Study 10
Chapter 2 Literature Review 12
2.1 Code-switching 12
2.1.1 Code-switching for Aesthetic Effects in Pop and Rap Music 14
2.1.2 Culture and Identities Marker in Pop and Rap music 16
2.1.3 Globalization and Emotion Marker in Pop and Rap Music 18
2.2 Face-threatening Acts and Impoliteness 21
2.3 Code-switching as A Strategy for Face-threatening Acts 23
2.4 Language and Speech Acts of Rap Music 27
Chapter 3 Methodology 29
3.1 Data of the Study 30
3.2 Data Collection and Categorization 31
3.2.1 Gathering of Code-switching Instances 32
3.2.2 Categorization of Tones 39
3.3 Data Analysis Procedure 45
Chapter 4 Findings and Discussion 49
4.1 Code-switching to English 53
4.1.1 English Code-switching in Confident/Boasting Tone 61
4.1.2 English Code-switching in Mocking Tone 65
4.1.3 English Code-switching in Angry/Criticizing Tone 69
4.1.4 English Code-switching in Flirting Tone 73
4.1.5 English Code-switching in Sad/Lost Tone 75
4.1.6 English Code-switching in Happy/Hopeful Tone 78
4.1.7 Discussion of English Code-switching in Face-threatening Lyrics 79
4.2 Code-switching to Taiwanese 85
4.2.1 Taiwanese Code-switching in Confident/Boasting Tone 87
4.2.2 Taiwanese Code-switching in Mocking Tone 89
4.2.3 Taiwanese Code-switching in Angry/Criticizing Tone 91
4.2.4 Taiwanese Code-switching in Flirting Tone 93
4.2.5 Taiwanese Code-switching in Sad/Lost Tone 94
4.2.6 Discussion of Taiwanese Code-switching in Face-threatening Lyrics 96
4.3 Code-switching to Mandarin 99
4.3.1 Mandarin Code-switching in Confident/Boasting Tone 99
4.3.2 Mandarin Code-switching in Angry/Criticizing Tone 100
4.3.3 Mandarin Code-switching in Sad/Lost Tone 102
4.3.4 Discussion of Mandarin Code-switching in Face-threatening Lyrics 103
4.4. Code-switching to Hakka, Indigenous languages and Japanese 105
4.4.1 Hakka Code-switching in Angry/Criticizing Tone 105
4.4.2 Code-switching to Indigenous Language in Angry/Criticizing and Sad/Lost Tone 108
4.4.3 Japanese Code-switching in in Angry/Criticizing and Sad/Lost Tone 110
4.4.4 Discussion of Code-switching to Hakka, Indigenous Languages, and Japanese in Face-threatening Lyrics 111
Chapter 5 Conclusion 113
5.1 Summary of Findings 113
5.2 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Study 115
References 117
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