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研究生:張振皓
研究生(外文):Chen-Hao Chang
論文名稱:臺灣教育不均與所得差距之關係:空間計量方法應用
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship between Education Inequality and Income Gap in Taiwan: An Application of Spatial Economtrics
指導教授:林俊宏林俊宏引用關係
口試委員:林俊宏楊志海賈昭南
口試日期:2018-06-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:產業經濟學系碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:38
中文關鍵詞:教育不均度所得差距空間計量
外文關鍵詞:Educational InequalityIncome GapSpatial Economtrics
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教育是人力資本形成的重要因素,提升教育水平是各國政府積極追求的目標,臺灣從1968年實施九年國民教育,臺灣的教育不均度開始逐年下降,表示教育分配越平均,但臺灣的所得差距卻逐年提升,代表所得分配的惡化。大部份文獻都關注在所得不均,顯少聚焦在教育不均上,本研究將以1999年到2014年臺灣各縣市區域資料,探討教育不均度與所得差距之間的關係。現今各縣市由於交通運輸方便,但因各縣市地理位置、文化和政府政策等不同因素,每個縣市的教育發展以及所得差距,除受自身影響外,也會受到鄰近縣市外溢效果的影響,所以必須考慮區域資料有空間自相關,故本研究將使用空間計量模型,避免有遺漏變數問題造成結果偏誤,並使用聯立方程式消除兩者間內生性。
實證結果為教育不均度與所得差距皆有正的空間相關性,即各縣市間存在教育不均外部性和所得差距外部性,因此教育不均與所得差距會因為空間外溢效果受到鄰近區域的影響,教育越平均的縣市會互相相鄰,所得差距越小的縣市會互相相鄰。教育不均度與所得差距的關係為負相關,所得差距擴大會造成教育不均下降和教育不均下降會使所得差距擴大,可能原因為所得差距擴大使窮人越有意願提升學歷獲得好工作改善生活,所以教育不均度會下降,而教育不均度下降會使雇主提供更低的薪資給教育程度較差的人,進而擴大所得差距。
Education is an important factor in the formation of human capital. Improving the educational level is an objective pursued by governments. Taiwan has implemented nine-year national education since 1968. The educational inequality in Taiwan has been declining yearly, but the the income gap has increased year by year. Most of the literature is concerned about the uneven distribution of income and the lack of focus on education inequality. This study will use regional data from 1999 to 2014 in Taiwan to explore the relationship between education inequality and income gap. Each county and city is convenient for transportation, but due to different factors such as the geographical location, culture, and government policies of each county and city, the educational development and income gap of each county and city will be affected by the spillover effects of neighboring counties and cities in addition to their own influence. Therefore, this study will use the spatial econometric model to avoid the bias caused by omitted variables and use simultaneous equations to eliminate the endogenousness .
The empirical result is that both educational inequality and income gaps have positive spatial autocorrelation.The more equal of counties and cities will be adjacent to each other, the smaller the difference between the county and city will be adjacent to each other. The educational inequality is negatively related to the income gap. The income gap will expand result in a decline in education inequality and a drop in education inequality, which will increase the income gap. This may due to the widening income gap, the greater the willingness of the poor to upgrade their academic qualifications, and the better job will improve their life, education inequality will decline, and unfair education will reduce employers'' wages to people with poorer education, thus the income gap will expand.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 教育發展與所得不均之間的關係 4
第二節 空間計量相關文獻探討 6
第三章 資料來源與變數敘述 8
第一節 資料來源 8
第二節 變數定義 9
第三節 變數敘述統計與分析 16
第四章 研究方法與模型 20
第一節 追蹤資料(Panel Data)分析法 20
第二節 空間計量分析法 21
第五章 實證結果分析 25
第一節 空間自我相關檢定分析結果 25
第二節 追蹤迴歸分析 28
第三節 2階段空間聯立方程分析 31
第六章 結論 34
參考文獻 36
表目錄
表 1 1999-2014年臺灣各縣市教育不均度 11
表 2 1999-2014年稅後所得差距倍數基本統計:依縣市區分 13
表 3 模型變數之敘述統計 17
表 4 教育不均度基本統計:依年度區分 18
表 5 稅後所得差距倍數基本統計:依年度區分 19
表 6 Moran’s I估計結果 27
表 7 追蹤迴歸結果 30
表 8 兩階段空間聯立方程式結果 33
圖目錄
圖 1研究架構 3
圖 2 臺灣教育羅倫斯曲線(1999年、2007年、2014年) 10
圖 3空間相鄰關係圖 22
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