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研究生:蘇翊綾
研究生(外文):SU,YI-LING
論文名稱:年輕人與長者在台語零指示詞理解之異同
論文名稱(外文):The Differences in Zero Anaphora Comprehension in Taiwan Southern Min in Younger and Older Adults
指導教授:吳俊雄吳俊雄引用關係麥傑麥傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):WU,JIUN-SHIUNGMYERS, JAMES
口試委員:林惠玲龔書萍
口試委員(外文):LIN, HUEI-LINGKUNG,SHU-PING
口試日期:2019-07-03
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:169
中文關鍵詞:零指示詞篇章結構老化理解台語
外文關鍵詞:zero anaphoradiscourse structureaging comprehensionTaiwan Southern Min
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根據篇章結構,零指示詞消解(zero anaphora resolution)可由句間關係來認定出三種原則,分別是語用、主詞優先與右緣優先。雖然不少研究著重於中文零指示詞,但很少專注於台語,更不用提老化與零指示詞理解的關係,因此,本研究把重心放在研究台語零指示詞理解的年齡差異。在本研究中,三種尋找適合中文零指示詞先行詞的原則應用於台語中,因為閱讀和老化同時涉及到工作記憶容量(working memory capacity),因此聽力廣度作業(listening span test)實行於每個實驗中,以利觀察其中的影響。
由於先前的研究指出語用和閱讀、工作記憶容量相關,特別對於長者而言是如此,因此另一個實驗目標是要測試語用線索(pragmatic cues)是否能交互影響零指示詞句法的結構。從句法的觀點來看,零指示詞最有可能出現在句子或篇章階層中兩個共指名詞(coreferential NPs)同時位於的主詞位置,另外,句子中如有包含感知動詞(perception verbs)會讓零指示詞更容易指涉位於受詞的先行詞。從語意的角度來看,零指示詞如在含有感知動詞的句子中,可同時指涉位於主詞或受詞的先行詞,取決於特殊線索的意義。語用的線索是否能幫助人們在含有感知動詞的句子/篇章中指涉到其零指示詞的先行詞至今仍存有質疑,在本研究中,我們做了篇章中有無語用線索的比較。
實驗1和2有一樣的基本設計,實驗1複製吳(2016)並運用於台語版本,實驗2則是修訂其較弱部分的實驗方法與材料。實驗1和2根據零指示詞的三個原則設計出三種類型的篇章,用來測試其年齡的差異。實驗結果顯示在實驗1中,年齡差異同時顯示於正確率與反應時間,但年齡差異在實驗2中只顯示於反應時間,實驗1的結果支持吳(2016)所主張的但實驗2則否。另外,根據實驗1和2的實驗結果推測出語用線索在理解中扮演著重要的角色,因此實驗3測試在零指示詞消解中,篇章中有無語用線索是否能推翻零指示詞的句法結構。實驗3結果顯示篇章中有無語用線索,其兩結果是一致的,進而推測出句法結構無法被推翻。
總言之,在本研究中,三種零指示詞理解的原則提供了台語零指示詞消解過程的新視野,語用線索測試能否推翻句法結構幫助我們更能清晰觀察到零指示詞理解過程中句法/語意的預設直覺。此外,實驗中所觀察到的年齡差異,亦能於老化理解謎團中揭露出些微線索。
Based on the discourse structure, three principles (pragmatics, subject prominence, and adjacency) can be identified for the zero anaphora (ZA) resolution in terms of the role played by pragmatics, semantics, and syntax in describing by sentences/clauses are pragmatically related. Although many studies focus on the ZA in Mandarin Chinese, few studies pay attention to the ZA in Taiwan Southern Min (henceforth TSM), let alone the relation between comprehension and aging. Therefore, this study aims to investigate age differences in ZA comprehension in TSM. In this study, the three principles which identify an appropriate antecedent to ZA in Mandarin Chinese are applied in TSM. Since both comprehension and aging involve working memory capacity, a listening span test was conducted in all experiments to observe its effects.
Another goal of this study is to test whether the pragmatic cues interact with the syntactic structure of ZA, since previous studies have suggested that pragmatics are related to the comprehension and WM capacity, especially for older adults. From the syntactic perspective, the ZA is more likely to occur in both sentence and discourse levels when the two coreferential NPs are both in the subject positions. In addition, the sentences containing the perception verbs will make ZAs easily refer to the object antecedents. From the semantic perspective, the ZAs in the sentences containing the perception verbs can either refer to a subject or an object antecedent, depending on the meanings of particular cues. It is questionable whether the pragmatic cues do help people locate the antecedent in the sentences/discourses containing the perception verbs. Discourses with/without pragmatic cues were examined in this study to make a comparison.
Experiment 1 and 2 had the same basic design. Experiment 1 replicates Wu et al. (2016) using TSM version, while Experiment 2 revises the weak parts of the method and materials. In Experiment 1 and 2, three types of discourses, each in accordance with one of the three principles, were examined to manifest the age differences. The results showed that the age differences in both accuracy rates and reaction times in Experiment 1 but age only affected reaction times in Experiment 2. The findings in Experiment 1 were support of Wu et al. (2016)'s claim whereas the ones in Experiment 2 did not. Since it is known that pragmatic cues play a vital role in comprehension, as suggested by the results in Experiment 1 and 2, Experiment 3 examined the discourses with/without pragmatic cues to test whether they could override syntactic cues when resolving ZA. The results showed that the discourses with pragmatic cues were consistent with the ones without pragmatic cues, suggesting that the syntactic cues could not be overrridden.
It is fair to conclude that in the study, the three principles of ZA comprehension give a new insight into the ZA recovery process in TSM. The test of whether pragmatic cues could override the syntactic cues to ZA resolution help us observe the default on syntactic/semantic intuition of processing the ZA comprehension more clearly. Moreover, the age differences observed in the experiments reveal a striking piece of the puzzle of aging comprehension.
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Aging and zero anaphora comprehension 1
1.2 Organization of thesis 12

Chapter Two: Theoretical Background 14
2.1 Overview 14
2.2 Zero anaphora in Mandarin Chinese 15
2.3 Previous experimental studies on zero anaphora, comprehension, and aging 34
2.4 Research questions 36

Chapter Three Experiment 1: Comprehension of Zero Anaphora under Three Principles 38
3.1 Overview 38
3.2 The goal of the experiment 39
3.3 Working memory capacity test 39
3.3.1 Participants 40
3.3.2 Materials 40
3.3.3 Procedure 42
3.3.4 Working memory scoring 43
3.4 Comprehension of three principles of ZA 44
3.4.1 Participants 44
3.4.2 Materials 44
3.4.3 Procedure 49
3.5 Results 50
3.5.1 Working memory capacity test 50
3.5.2 Comprehension of three principles of ZA 51
3.5.3 Working memory capacity and comprehension of three principles of ZA in different ages 56
3.5.4 Comparison of working memory effect 60
3.6 Discussion 62

Chapter Four Experiment 2: Comprehension of Zero Anaphora under Three Principles (Education Limited) 64
4.1 Overview 64
4.2 Working memory capacity test 65
4.2.1 Participants 65
4.2.2 Materials 65
4.2.3 Procedure 67
4.2.4 Working memory scoring 67
4.3 Comprehension of three principles of ZA 67
4.3.1 Participants 67
4.3.2 Materials 68
4.3.3 Procedure 68
4.4 Results 69
4.4.1 Working memory capacity test 69
4.4.2 Comprehension of three principles of ZA 70
4.4.3 Working memory capacity and comprehension of three principles of ZA in different ages 75
4.4.4 Comparison of working memory effect 78
4.5 Discussion 80
4.6 Comparison of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 81

Chapter Five Experiment 3: Comprehension of Zero Anaphora in Pragmatics 85
5.1 Overview 85
5.2 The goal of the experiment 87
5.3 Working memory capacity test 87
5.3.1 Participants 87
5.3.2 Materials 88
5.3.3 Procedure 88
5.3.4 Working memory scoring 89
5.4 Comprehension of ZA in pragmatic cues 89
5.4.1 Participants 89
5.4.2 Materials 89
5.4.3 Procedure 97
5.5 Results 97
5.5.1 Working memory capacity test 98
5.5.2 Comprehension without pragmatic cues 98
5.5.3 Comprehension with pragmatic cues 101
5.5.3.1 Overall results 102
5.5.3.2 Overall results with working memory 107
5.5.3.3 Comparison of working memory effect 110
5.5.3.4 Direct and indirect pragmatic cues 112
5.6 Discussion 114

Chapter Six: General Discussion and Conclusion 118
6.1 Overview 118
6.2 Summary of findings 119
6.3 General discussion 121
6.3.1 The aging factor in the processing of ZA comprehension in TSM 121
6.3.2 The role of pragmatics in the study of comprehension of ZA 122
6.4 Implication for future research 123
6.5 Conclusion 125

References 126
Appendix A: Instruction of the TSM proficiency test 132
Appendix B: 40 Sentences in Listening Span Task for Experiment 1 133
Appendix C: Instruction of Listening Span Task in Mandarin Chinese 135
Appendix D: 30 Discourses of Experiment Stimuli for Experiment 1 136
Appendix E: Instruction of Comprehension of three principles of ZA in Mandarin Chinese 143
Appendix F: 40 Sentences in Listening Span Task for Experiment 2 144
Appendix G: 15 Discourses of Experiment Stimuli for Experiment 2 146
Appendix H: 12 Sets of Experiment Stimuli for Experiment 3 150
Appendix I: Instruction of Comprehension of ZA for Experiment 3 in Mandarin Chinese 169

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