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研究生:張璟玟
研究生(外文):CHANG, CHING-WEN
論文名稱:以隱喻抽取技術探索家庭式露營者體驗內涵與價值之共識
論文名稱(外文):Using the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique to Explore the Consensus Meanings and Values of Family Camping Tourists
指導教授:王正華王正華引用關係陳寬裕陳寬裕引用關係
指導教授(外文):WANG, CHENG-HUACHEN, KUAN-YU
口試委員:何嘉惠敬世龍周蕙苓黃珊陳寬裕王正華
口試委員(外文):HO, CHIA-HUICHING, SHIH-LUNGChou, HUI-LINHWANG, SHANCHEN, KUAN-YUCHEN, KUAN-YU
口試日期:2019-04-27
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:長榮大學
系所名稱:經營管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:151
中文關鍵詞:家庭式露營旅遊體驗價值隱喻抽取概念技術方法目的鏈
外文關鍵詞:Family Camping TravelValues of ExperienceZaltman Metaphor Elicitation TechniqueMeads-End Chain Technique Performance
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家庭式露營旅遊(Family Camping Travel)是個重要的社交活動,且是個能提供個體、家人與大自然重新連結的方法。藉由家庭式露營旅遊活動可實現個人、家庭、社會和健康等多面向的利益。過往學術流中,不少學者認為體驗(Experience)是個非常難以定義、複雜且具有多維的概念。在露營旅遊中,有關於體驗的內涵與價值之相關研究,更是付之闕如。

本研究目的以質化研究方法探索家庭式露營旅遊體驗的內涵與價值。研究設計有別與於傳統以語言為主的深度訪談,而是使用著重消費者聆聽想法的隱喻抽取概念技術(Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique, ZMET),來誘導家庭式露營旅遊體驗者內心深層的感受與經驗價值的關鍵構念(key constructs),即代表家庭式露營旅遊體驗者之想法的核心。並且運用方法目的鏈(Meads-End Chain, MEC)將關鍵構念分解為起始構念(屬性)、連結構念(結果)與終結構念(內涵與價值)之鏈結,完成家庭式露營旅遊體驗之內涵與價值的共識地圖建構代表著家庭式露營旅遊者對於其體驗之內涵與價值的深層思維。

本研究結果分析發展出家庭式露營旅遊體驗的最終價值「生態保育」、「正向能量」、「人際社交」、「學習成長」、「放鬆」、「親子關係」、「凝聚」、「逃逸」八大構面,這八大構面代表家庭式露營旅遊者之共識地圖。在學術意涵中,家庭式露營旅遊者的起始動機、想法結構及最終期望所可能涵蓋的構念,未來可發展量表來做為預設理論或概念架構的基礎。實務建議上,構念代表家庭式露營旅遊消費群之深層思維,也是此目標市場消費者的共識。

關鍵詞:家庭式露營旅遊、體驗價值、隱喻抽取概念技術、方法目的鏈

Family camping travel is an important social activity and provides a way of reconnecting with nature to achieve personal, social, and health benefits. Experience is a fundamental component of tourism and outdoor recreation while still being a difficult-to-define, complex, and multidimensional concept. Experience is not well understood regarding family camping travel, and recent research is limited. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore family camping tourist's perceived meanings and values of experiences.

In order to achieve a deeper understanding of the values of family campers’ experience, this research used the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) instead of traditional linguistically-based in-depth interviews. According to this method, the participants were inquired and asked to link those pictures which they provided. The participants also had to explain the connection among pictures. The researcher would like to clearly understand the participant’s mind by nonverbal images. The real thoughts, feelings and behaviors about family camping tourist's values of experiences could be collected under the method. The collected thoughts, feelings and behaviors were transformed to writing to find out the key constructs in family campers’ minds. Then each family camper’s mental model about the values of camping experience could be obtained by Meads-End Chain Technique (MEC). The different family campers’ mental models were utilized to assemble a consensus map by dominant constructs. The consensus map represents family campers’ deep thoughts and shows the family camping tourist's perceived meanings and values of experiences as well. Finally, through induction, the consensus map indicates the values of family campers’ experience that could be used as the basis of assumption theory or concept structure.

This study identified the eight construct development of family camping tourists’ experience of "ecological conservation", "positive energy", "interpersonal social", "learning and growing", "relaxation", "parent-child relationship", "cohesion" and "escape" that delivery of the family camping tourists’ experience of family camping travel analyzing of family camping tourists’ experience consensus maps. In academic implications, this study indicates the family camping tourists’ initial motivations, thinking frame and final expectations that could be developed scale to use as the basis of assumption theory or concept structure in the future. In practical suggestions, empirical results represents family camping tourists’ deep thoughts and shows the consumers’ consensus of the target market as well.

Keyword: Family Camping Travel, Values of Experience, Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique, Meads-End Chain Technique Performance
目錄
中文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………………… i
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………………………………ii
目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………iv
表目錄 …………………………………………………………………………………vi
圖目錄 …………………………………………………………………………………vii
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究背景與動機……………………………………………………1
1.2 研究目的……………………………………………………………………6
1.3 研究流程……………………………………………………………………7
1.4 研究範圍與限制………………………………………………………9
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………………………10
2.1 家庭式露營旅遊………………………………………………………10
2.2 體驗………………………………………………………………………………12
2.3 連結活動屬性到活動結果與體驗價值…………16
2.4 隱喻抽取技術與應用……………………………………………19
第三章 研究方法……………………………………………………………………22
3.1 問卷設計與發放………………………………………………………22
3.2 研究設計與抽樣………………………………………………………24
3.3 隱喻抽取技術(ZMET)訪談流程…………………………30
第四章 研究內容………………………………………………………………………36
4.1 家庭式露營旅遊受訪者之篩選……………………………38
4.2 ZMET訪談流程與個人心智地圖之建構……………40
4.3 關鍵構念的萃取…………………………………………………………54
4.4 共同構念抽取與彙整…………………………………………………58
4.5 相關構念的分析……………………………………………………………61
4.6 共識地圖的建立……………………………………………………………63
4.7 相關影像分析…………………………………………………………………85
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………………………………103
5.1 研究結論……………………………………………………………………………103
5.2 管理意涵……………………………………………………………………………106
5.3 後續研究建議及研究限制…………………………………………119
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………………………………………122
附錄一 家庭式露營旅遊休閒涉入量表問卷………………………133
附錄二 家庭式露營旅遊者深度訪談題項設計…………………134
附錄三 受訪者個人心智地圖……………………………………………………138
附錄四 受訪者A之逐字稿……………………………………………………………143

表目錄
表3-1 家庭式露營旅遊休閒涉入量表…………………………………………28
表3-2 訪談研究人員資料…………………………………………………………………29
表4-1 受訪者樣本資料………………………………………………………………………39
表4-2 說故事與構念抽取…………………………………………………………………41
表4-3 遺失的影像………………………………………………………………………………44
表4-4 分類整理……………………………………………………………………………………45
表4-5 構念抽取……………………………………………………………………………………46
表4-6 最具代表性的圖片…………………………………………………………………47
表4-7 最相反的圖片……………………………………………………………………………48
表4-8 受訪者A感官的聯想………………………………………………………………49
表4-9 總結影像與小短文………………………………………………………………51
表4-10 研究人員間的相互同意度…………………………………………………55
表4-11 9位受訪者原始提及構念總表…………………………………………57
表4-12 9位受訪者共同構念表排序………………………………………………59
表4-13 相關構念分析表……………………………………………………………………62
表4-14 露營旅遊者者關鍵構念分解為起始構念、連結構念及終結構念 64
表4-15 受訪者的最具代表性圖片與相反圖片………………………………86
表4-16 最具代表性影像與最相反圖片彙整與分析(一)……………91
表4-17 最具代表性影像與最相反圖片彙整與分析(二)……………91
表4-18 最具代表性影像與最相反圖片彙整與分析(三)……………92
表4-19 最具代表性影像與最相反圖片彙整與分析(四)……………92
表4-20 感官影像彙整-家庭式露營是什麼感覺………………………………96
表4-21 感官影像彙整-家庭式露營不是什麼感覺…………………………96
表4-22 受訪者的總結影像與小短文…………………………………………………98

圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程圖……………………………………………………………………………………8
圖3-1 研究設計程序圖……………………………………………………………………………23
圖3-2 ZMET訪談操作步驟圖…………………………………………………………………35
圖4-1 家庭式露營旅遊體驗與價值實務分析流程圖…………………37
圖4-2 受訪者A個人心智地圖…………………………………………………………………50
圖4-3 家庭式露營旅遊者共識地圖………………………………………………………63
圖4-4 共識地圖構面分析-生態保育……………………………………………………65
圖4-5 共識地圖構面分析-正面能量……………………………………………………67
圖4-6 共識地圖構面分析-人際社交……………………………………………………70
圖4-7 共識地圖構面分析-學習成長……………………………………………………72
圖4-8 共識地圖構面分析-放鬆………………………………………………………………75
圖4-9 共識地圖構面分析-親子關係………………………………………………………78
圖4-10 共識地圖構面分析-凝聚…………………………………………………………………80
圖4-11 共識地圖構面分析-逃逸…………………………………………………………………82
圖4-12 受訪者總結影像、小短文與共識地圖之分析彙整………………102
圖5-1 家庭式露營旅遊內涵與價值MEC理論發展結構圖…………………104
圖5-2 家庭式露營旅遊體驗價值八大因素構面圖………………………………105


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