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研究生:溫鵑羽
研究生(外文):Chuan-Yu Wen
論文名稱:社交焦慮者在虛擬實境(VR)演講後的情緒調節:比較分析式與經驗式反芻以及分心策略的效果
論文名稱(外文):Emotion Regulation After a Speech Task in Virtual Reality (VR) in Individual with Social Anxiety: Comparisons of Effects of Experiential and Analytical Self-focused Rumination, and Distraction
指導教授:梁記雯梁記雯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Wen Liang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:社交焦慮事件後處理歷程情緒調節分析式反芻經驗式反芻分心自我關注虛擬實境
外文關鍵詞:social anxietypost-event processingemotion regulationexperiential ruminationanalytical ruminationdistractionself-focusingvirtual reality
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研究背景與目的:社交焦慮者在經歷社交焦慮情境之後,往往傾向使用事件後反芻(post-evetn rumination)來調節情緒,但卻反而使得焦慮情緒被維持或增加。反芻是焦慮與憂鬱者經常使用的情緒調節策略,相對於分心(另一種情緒調節策略)而言,兩者的主要區別在於「關注的焦點」不同,反芻是一種高自我關注的認知歷程,分心則涉及較低的自我關注;而反芻亦可藉由「處理的形式」區分為分析式自我關注反芻與經驗式自我關注反芻。許多研究發現,高社交焦慮者在進行分析式反芻或經驗式反芻後,負向情緒不具有顯著改變;其它研究發現分心能顯著降低高社交焦慮者的負向情緒。然而,少有研究同時比較這三種情緒調節策略對社交焦慮者之情緒調節效果。本研究使高社交焦慮者在虛擬實境(Virtual Reality; VR)的演講情境中進行公開演講作業,並比較高社交焦慮者在進行演講作業後,使用分析式反芻、經驗式反芻或分心策略對正、負向情緒狀態的調節效果差異。

研究方法:70位非臨床樣本之高社交焦慮大學生在經歷虛擬實境演講後,被隨機分派至分析式反芻組(23位)、經驗式反芻組(23位)或分心組(24位),並進行情緒調節任務。另外,參與者須分別在實驗一開始、被告知演講作業、演講前、演講後(情緒調節前)與情緒調節後共五個時間點自評快樂、放鬆、滿足、焦慮、難過及生氣情緒狀態。

研究結果:分析式反芻、經驗式反芻與分心策略皆能提升放鬆情緒,及降低焦慮、生氣與難過情緒,但僅有經驗式反芻策略能提升快樂情緒。不過,三種情緒調節策略調節放鬆、滿足及負向情緒的效果沒有差異。本研究無法觀察到三種情緒調節策略的效果差異可能是由於情緒調節策略的操弄效果不佳,因此本研究嘗試依據參與者自評在實驗中使用程度最高的策略將參與者重新分組。其中分心組由於人數過少,因此不納入分析,結果發現兩種反芻策略皆能提升快樂與放鬆情緒,及降低焦慮與生氣情緒,不過兩種反芻策略在調節正、負向情緒的效果不具有差異。

結論:本研究結果顯示分析式反芻、經驗式反芻與分心策略對於情緒調節都有正向的效果,然而三種策略在情緒調節的效果上沒有顯著差異。三種策略的情緒調節效果沒有差異可能與情緒調節策略的操弄效果不佳有關:本研究發現被分派到分析式或經驗式反芻策略的高社交焦慮者往往傾向同時使用兩種反芻策略;其次,被分派到分心策略的高社交焦慮者仍然會不自覺同時使用反芻策略,參與者能否在實驗中順利使用分心策略可能與其日常生活中使用分心策略的傾向有關。
Background: Socially anxious individuals commonly engaged in post-event rumination to regulate emotions following anxiety-provoking social situations, but they ended up maintaining or increasing anxiety states. Studies showed that rumination was a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that frequently used by people with depression or anxiety. Rumination can be differentiated from distraction which is another type of emotion regulation strategy according to the content of focus. Rumination involves high self-focused cognitions whereas distraction often leads to a reduction in self-focused cognitions. In addition, two forms of self-focused rumination have been distinguished according to the modes of processing. They are experiential rumination and analytical rumination. To date, there have been few studies comparing the effects of these three emotion regulations at the same time in individual with social anxiety. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of emotion regulation strategies including experiential self-focused rumination, analytical self-focused rumination and distraction on positive and negative emotions following the speech task in virtual reality (VR) scenarios in college students with high social anxiety.

Method: After completing the speech task within a virtual reality environment, 70 non-clinical college students with high social anxiety were randomly assign to experiential rumination group (n=23), analytical rumination group (n=23) and distraction group (n=24) to perform the emotion regulation task. Also, participants completed the ratings of happy, relaxed, satisfied, anxious, sad and angry emotional states at five time points, including the baseline, receiving instructions about speech task, before speech task, after speech task, before emotion regulation and after emotion regulation.

Results: The results showed that experiential rumination, analytical rumination and distraction all increased feelings of relaxation and decrease anxiety, anger and sadness. Only analytical rumination increased happiness. However, there were no differences between the three emotion regulation strategies in the effects of regulation of feelings of relaxation and satisfaction, and negative emotions. The reason why the present study failed to observe different effects of the three emotion regulation strategies may be due to the ineffectiveness of experimental manipulation for different emotion regulation strategies. Accordingly, the present study tried to regroup the participants based on the most frequently used strategy reported by the participant in the experiment. The distraction group was not included in the analysis because the group size was too small. It was found that both ruminations increased feelings of happiness and relaxation as well as reduced anxiety and anger. However, there were no differences between the two ruminations in the effects of regulation of positive and negative emotions.


Conclusion: The present study suggests that experiential rumination, analytical rumination and distraction all have positive effects on emotion regulation. However, they are not significantly different from each other in the effects of emotion regulation. It is probably because of ineffectiveness of experimental manipulation for each emotion regulation strategy. The present study found that high socially anxious individuals assigned to analytical or experiential rumination group tended to use both rumination strategies at the same time. Moreover, high socially anxious individuals assigned to distraction group still unconsciously used rumination strategies in addition to distraction. We also found that whether participants could successfully use distraction strategy in the experiment was related to the tendency to use distraction strategy in their daily lives.
摘要......I
Abstract......III
目錄......V
圖目錄......VII
表目錄......VIII
第一章  緒論......1
第二章 文獻探討 ......3
第一節 社交焦慮疾患之定義與心理病理特徵......3
第二節 情緒調節......11
第三節 反芻中不同的關注焦點與處理形式對情緒調節之影響......17
第四節 虛擬實境(VR)在心理病理研究上的應用......27
第五節 研究問題與研究假設......30
第三章 研究方法......31
第一節 研究設計......31
第二節 研究參與者......31
第三節 研究工具......32
第四節 實驗材料......37
第五節 研究程序......41
第六節 統計分析方法......45
第四章 研究結果......48
第一節 三組參與者在各量表上的差異......48
第二節 實驗操弄效果檢核......49
第三節 情緒調節策略對正負向情緒的影響效果......60
第四節 重新分組後之研究結果......74
第五章 討論......82
第一節 情緒調節策略操弄的效果......82
第二節 情緒調節策略的效果......85
第三節 VR運用在演講作業操弄中的效果......87
第四節 研究貢獻與臨床應用......89
第五節 研究限制與未來研究方向......90
參考文獻......93
附錄一 視覺類比量表......104
附錄二 參與者對於VR影響演講表現的質性回答......107
附錄三 中文版社交互動焦慮量表使用同意書......111
附錄四 中文版社交恐懼量表使用同意書......112
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