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研究生:邱慶祐
研究生(外文):Ching-Yu Chiu
論文名稱:以英語為母語及非母語的教師對於兒童學習口說英語之影響:以臺灣某英語補習學校為例
論文名稱(外文):The Influences of Native English Teachers and Non-native English Teachers on Young Learners’ English Speaking Proficiency: A Case Study in a Private English Cram School in Taiwan
指導教授:李家遠
指導教授(外文):Jia-Yeuan, Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:應用外國語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:英語學習環境幼齡學習者口說能力以英語為母語之英文教師英語非母語之英文教師
外文關鍵詞:English learning environmentyoung learnersspeaking abilitynative English teachersnon-native English teachers
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摘要

本文旨在探討以英語為母語及非母語的教師對於兒童學習口說英文之影響。其目的為:(1)探討是否學習環境對於兒童學習英語口說能力扮演很重要的角色。(2)分析受試兒童所做口說測驗卷、問卷、以及面試數據,來佐證本研究的假設以及推論。本研究抽取一所臺灣英語補習學校中的21位學生參與,年齡介於11到12歲間。本研究採量化研究的口試測驗卷及問卷調查法蒐集相關資料,所獲取的資料以單因子變異數分析、Pearson 積差相關係數、獨立樣本t 檢定、多變量測試等統計方法進行分析;另外加採質化研究的訪談法加以佐證此研究提出的假說以及結論。研究者期望這篇論文對於未來相關研究有所貢獻,同時也建議其他研究者未來若探討相關議題,需找規模大一點的英語補習學校,以進行更精確的研究。
依據研究得到重要結果如下:(1)全英語學習環境確實可以幫助學生學習口說英語,並在用字正確率、表達順暢度、單字發音這三部分,有顯著的效果。(2)全中文學習環境的學生在課堂中顯著地使用中文溝通。(3)性別的差異在此研究中不造成任何影響。(4)對於全英語教學而言,教學中融入遊戲是最有效的策略之一;於全中文學習環境而言,課程以及教案設計應在文法教學以及口說教學間找到平衡。(5)就英語學習動機而言,大部分的學生擁有綜合型動機。

關鍵字:英語學習環境、幼齡學習者、口說能力、以英語為母語之英文教師、英語非母語之英文教師
Abstract

This study focused on the influence of native English teachers and non-native English teachers on young learners’ English proficiency when it comes to speaking. The purposes of the study are: (1) To investigate whether the learning environment plays a crucial role in learning English with young learners. (2) To analyze the data and the numbers collected from the young learners and to back up with the assumptions and theories. This study was set in a private English cram school in Taiwan, and the total number of the participants was 21 students, aged from 11 to 12-year-old. The study employed quantitative method via oral proficiency tests and questionnaire. The researcher used One-way ANOVA test, Pearson correlation test, Independent sample T-Test, and Multivariate test to analyze the results. The interview transcriptions were analyzed to provide the proofs as qualitative results, supporting the study’s assumptions and conclusion. The researcher wished to present this study for future purposes and make contribution, also suggested that in future research, the researchers may need to find a bigger scale of the chain brand cram school to conduct more precisely studies.
The present study found that: (1) Full English-speaking learning environment indeed helped students strengthen their oral proficiency in terms of the accuracy of vocabulary, fluency, and pronunciation. (2) Students from full Chinese-speaking learning environment class were significantly using Chinese in class. (3) The difference of gender does not affect the study’s results. (4) In terms of full English-speaking teaching, one of the best strategies is to embed games with it; as for the design of teaching plans and curriculums in full Chinese-speaking teaching, a balance should be established between grammar teaching and speaking skills teaching. (5) Most of the students were identified as possessing integrative motivational orientation.

Keywords: English learning environment, young learners, speaking ability, native English teachers, non-native English teachers
Table of Contents
摘要 i
Abstract iii
Acknowledgement v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
■Chapter 1 Introduction 1
■1.1. Background of the Study 1
■1.2. Research Aims and Objectives 4
■1.3. Significance of the study 5
■1.4. Research Questions 7
■1.5 Organization of the Article 8
■Chapter 2 Literature Review 9
■2.1 English learning environment 9
■2.2 Importance and the necessity of English speaking ability 10
■2.2.1 Features of English Oral Proficiency 11
■2.2.2 Teaching to Promote Oral Proficiency 13
■2.3 Empirical Studies of Gender Difference in Language Learning 16
■2.4 Motivation in learning English 17
■2.4.1 Motivation type 18
■2.4.2 Empirical Studies of Language Learning Motivational Orientations 19
■2.5 Introduction of the learning program 22
■2.6 Brief introduction of American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) 26
■2.7 The differences of teaching methods between native-English speaking teachers and Chinese-speaking English teachers 29
■2.8 The advantages of supplementary education 31
■2.9 Conclusive Summary 33
■Chapter 3 Methodology 35
■3.1 Research Design 35
■3.2 Research Materials 36
■3.2.1 Background of the participants 37
■3.2.2 Research Tendency 38
■3.3 Data Collection Procedure 38
■3.4 Data Analysis 41
■3.5 Interview 43
■3.6 The Assessment of the Pilot Test 43
■Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 47
■4.1 The Assessment of Content Tests 47
■4.1.1 The Assessment of the Pre-test 47
■4.1.2 The Assessment of the Post-test 50
■4.1.3 Summary of the Three Oral Proficiency Tests 52
■4.2 Correlation Analysis 54
■4.2.1 Results of the Correlation Analysis 55
■4.2.2 Summary of the Correlation Analysis 56
■4.3 Differential Statistical Analysis 59
■4.3.1 Results of Differential Statistical Analysis 59
■4.3.2 Summary of Differential Statistical Analysis 68
■4.4 Variance Analysis 69
■4.4.1 Results of Variance Analysis 69
■4.4.2 Summary of Variance Analysis 73
■4.5 Conclusive Summary 74
■4.5.1 Qualitative Testimony 74
■Chapter 5 Conclusion and Implications 77
■5.1 Major Findings 78
■5.2 Contributions of the study 81
■5.3 Limitations of the study and Recommendations for Future Research 82
■References 84
Appendix A. Pilot Test 90
Appendix B. Pre-Test 91
Appendix C. Post-Test 93
Appendix D. Questionnaire 95
Part A. English Version 95
Part B. Chinese Version 98
Appendix E. Interview Form 102
Appendix F. Informed Consent Form 103
Part A. English Version 103
Part B. Chinese Version 106

List of Tables
Table 1. The classification of the participants 37
Table 2. The criteria of the oral tests 41
Table 3. One-Way ANOVA for English Learning Environment of Pilot test 44
Table 4. One-Way ANOVA for English Learning Environment of Pre-test 50
Table 5. One-Way ANOVA for English Learning Environment of Post-test 52
Table 6. Correlation Analysis of Variables 58
Table 7. One-Way ANOVA in the usage of language in English class 60
Table 8. Independent Sample T-Test in the usage of language in English class 60
Table 9. One-Way ANOVA in Self-Awareness of Motivation in English Learning 62
Table 10. Independent Sample T-Test in Self-Awareness of Motivation in English Learning 64
Table 11. Independent Sample T-Test in Four Types of Motivational Orientations in English Learning 65
Table 12. One-Way ANOVA in Four Types of Motivational Orientations in English Learning 65
Table 13. Distribution of Four Types of Motivational Orientations in English Learning 67
Table 14. Means of Four Types of Motivational Orientations in English Learning 67
Table 15. Multivariate Test of English learning environment in the usage of language in English class 69
Table 16. Multivariate Test of Gender in the usage of language in English class 70
Table 17. Multivariate Test of English learning environment in Self-Awareness of Motivation in English Learning 71
Table 18. Multivariate Test of Gender in Self-Awareness of Motivation in English Learning 72

List of Figures
Figure 1. The ACTFL Proficiency Pyramid 28
Figure 2. The procedure of the study 40
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