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研究生:李侑靜
研究生(外文):LI,YOU-CHING
論文名稱:《菩薩凝視的島嶼》中的創傷見證
論文名稱(外文):Trauma Testimony in Michael Ondaatje's Anil's Ghost
指導教授:蘇文伶蘇文伶引用關係
指導教授(外文):SU, WEN-LING
口試委員:劉紀雯楊麗中
口試委員(外文):LIU, CHI-WENYANG, LI-CHUNG
口試日期:2019-01-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:創傷見證延遲麥可˙翁達傑<菩薩凝視的島嶼>
外文關鍵詞:TraumatestimonybelatednessMichael OndaatjeAnil's Ghost
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麥可˙翁達傑(Michael Ondaatje)所著小說《菩薩凝視的島嶼》(Anil’s Ghost)中,個人和集體創傷因發生於斯里蘭卡內戰的武裝衝突而有密切關聯。戰爭創傷留下的殘影縈繞,如同容易傳染的國民病,令人感到懼怕。創傷使記憶產生斷裂,進而導致受害者產生「解離」(dissociation)和「延遲反應」(belatedness)等後遺症。目睹者因創傷衝擊產生記憶空缺而無法述說事實的情況下,「創傷見證」困難重重,因此其實是充滿矛盾的說法。本篇論文認為翁達傑在《菩薩凝視的島嶼》裡表達了創傷見證的可能性與必要性。英文中「見證」(witness)一詞等同「親眼目睹」(eyewitness),但在小說中眼睛的意象與盲目相關,具反諷意味。創傷倖存者(如Sailor)對創傷事件的失語有如形式上的眼盲。小說開頭以目睹者立場作為旁觀者牽引出見證的重要性,其主旨在伸張正義為受害者發聲。因此,Anil 在透過Ananda、Sailor 及當地人產生同理心之後,勇於承擔大任將斯里蘭卡內戰暴行公諸於世。在Anil 向世人作見證的同時,Ananda 也從其藝術作品中通透自己失去所愛的創傷。在小說結尾Ananda 為佛像畫上眼睛,並讓佛像目睹一切當地的苦難。相對於日漸世俗化的佛教在內戰中益加沉淪,Ananda 畫佛像眼睛同時象徵讓佛教恢復原本重視包容、智慧及憐憫的意義,並再次突顯內戰重創後心靈對療癒的渴望與企盼。
In Michael Ondaatje’s Anil’s Ghost, individual trauma and collective trauma are inexorably connected due to military conflicts in the Sri Lankan Civil War. Remnants of wartime trauma haunt everyone and become something like an infectious national disease. Trauma creates ruptures in memory, which lead to dissociation and belated responses to the shocking experience. Trauma testimony is therefore a contradiction in terms, as the witness is silenced and there is nothing to tell from the traumatic void. However, this thesis argues that, in Anil's Ghost, Ondaatje suggests the possibility and necessity of bearing witness to trauma. "Witnessing" is often equated with "eye-witnessing," but in this novel, the symbol of eyes is ironically linked with blindness. Trauma victims are metaphorically blind because they are caught in the darkness of voicelessness, as is the case of Sailor. The novel highlights the viewpoint of Anil as an outsider in the beginning who gradually assumes the position of a witness where there is none. Most significantly, Anil commits herself to the responsibility after developing empathy with Ananda, Sailor, and other locals. Aside from Anil's testimony, the spirit of the dead lives on in another form as well: Ananda's artworks. Ananda works through his trauma while rebuilding Sailor's skull. In the end, by painting the eyes of
Buddha statues, he turns Buddha into an all-seeing eyewitness of human suffering. The eye-paint ritual symbolizes the restoration of the Buddhist values of compassion, wisdom, and mercy, suggesting hope and healing after the devastation of the civil war.
Table of Contents
Introduction — 1
Chapter I: “Death, Loss, Was Unfinished”:
War Trauma in Anil’s Ghost —7
Chapter II: “To Give Him a Name Would Name the Rest”:
The Distance of Witnessing and Its Consequences — 36
Chapter III: “Secrets Turn Powerless in the Open Air”:
Effects of Testimony on Trauma — 58
Conclusion — 82
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