(3.230.143.40) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/23 15:29
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:劉靖瑋
研究生(外文):Chin-Wei Liu
論文名稱:牙周治療對牙周病人生活品質的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Impact of Periodontal Treatment on Quality of Life in Periodontal Patients
指導教授:黃瓊玉黃瓊玉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiung-Yu Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:義守大學
系所名稱:護理學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:牙周病糖尿病牙周病治療口腔衛生生活品質
外文關鍵詞:Periodontal DiseaseDiabetesPeriodontal Disease TreatmentOral HygieneQuality of Life
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:53
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
背景:台灣成人99.2%有不同程度之牙周病、20 歲以上成年人糖尿病盛行率為12.3%,牙周病和控制不良的糖尿病相互影響,高血糖會增加牙周病的風險和嚴重程度,可能導致高血糖控制不良和糖尿病併發症。過去較少關於牙周病及糖尿病病人健康相關生活品質的研究。故本研究旨在於牙周病的糖尿病病人經牙周統合照護計畫對生活品質之差異。
目的:本研究旨在於比較接受牙周病介入治療的糖尿病病人與一般門診牙周病病人的口腔困擾及生活品質之變化差異。研究對象符合牙周病統合照護計畫且排除下列條件:定期服用抗生素及骨質疏鬆症等藥物治療、有抽菸或嚼食檳榔、戒除菸檳榔未達半年、罹患全身系統性疾病、精神疾病病史。
方法:為比較性的量性研究,採立意取樣,在牙周病門診由醫師轉介收案。研究對象共兩組,糖尿病組給予「牙周病治療及口腔衛生指導」及糖尿病管理衛教,共22 位;非糖尿病組為22 位,接受常規的「牙周病治療及口腔衛生指導」,共44 位。三次評估時間分別為治療前(T1)、治療後第一個月(T2)及第三個月(T3)。研究工具包括口腔衛生影響量表(OHIP-14)和世界衛生組織生活質量台灣簡明版(WHOQOL-BREF)。統計分析方法包括T 檢定、卡方檢定、單因子變異數分析等。
結果:牙周病人經牙周病治療後,一般的牙周病人經牙周病治療後,口腔困擾程度有顯著改善 (P<.05),整體生活品質的平均數有提升,但無統計上顯著成效(P >.05)。具糖尿病的牙周病人接受介入治療之後,其T2 及T3 的飯前血糖比T1 的血糖有顯著降低(P<.05),糖化血色素(HbA1C)經接受介入治療之後,其T2 比T1 的糖化血色素有顯著降低(P<.05),但T3 的糖化血色素相較於T1 的糖化血色素,則無顯著降低(P >.05)。
結論和臨床應用:本研究發現牙周病介入治療能改善牙周病人的生活品質及糖尿病人疾病血糖管理成效。提供護理人員關於病人牙周病照護治療並間接影響血糖管理,減輕牙齒困擾,進而提升其健康生活品質。
Background:
About 99.2% of adults in Taiwan have different degrees of periodontal disease, and the prevalence of diabetes in adults over 20 years old is 12.3%. Periodontal disease and poorly controlled diabetes affect each other. Hyperglycemia increases the risk and severity of periodontal disease, which may result in Hyperglycemia control and complications of diabetes. In the past, there have been few studies on the health-related quality of life of periodontal disease and diabetes patients. This study aimed to determine the difference in quality of life between patients with periodontal disease and diabetes through periodontal integration care.
Objective:
This study compared the differences in oral distress and quality of life between diabetic patients undergoing periodontal disease intervention and general outpatient periodontal disease. The subjects met the periodontal disease integrated care plan and excluded the following conditions: taking antibiotics regularly and rerug treatment such as osteoporosis, have smoking or chewing betel nuts, quit smoking betel nut for less than half a year, suffering from systemic diseases, history of mental
Methods:
For comparative quantitative research, a sampling was taken and a referral was made by a physician at the periodontal disease clinic. The study group consisted of two groups. The diabetes group gave 22 patients with "periodonial disease treatment and oral hygiene guidance" and diabetes management and education, and 22 patients in the non-diabetic group. They received routine "periodonal disease treatment and oral hygiene guidance". A total of 44. The three evaluation times were pre-treatment (T1), first month (T2) after treatment, and third month (T3). Research tools include the Oral Health Impact Scale (OHIP-14) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Taiwan Concise Edition (WHOQOL-BREF). Statistical analysis methods include T-test, chi-square test, and single-factor variance analysis.
Results:
After periodontal disease treatment in periodontal patients, the degree of oral distress was significantly improved in patients with periodontal disease after general periodontal disease treatment (P<.05), and the average quality of life improved, but no statistically significant results (P >.05). After periodontal treatment of diabetic patients, T2 and T3 had significantly lower pre-prandial blood glucose than T1 (P < .05), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) was T2 saccharified after T1 intervention. Hemoglobin was significantly reduced (P < .05), but T3 glycated hemoglobin was not significantly reduced compared to T1 glycated hemoglobin (P> .05).
Conclusions:
This study found that interventional therapy for periodontal disease can improve the quality of life of patients with periodontal disease and the effectiveness of blood glucose management in patients with diabetes. Provide caregivers on the treatment of patients with periodontal disease and indirectly affect blood sugar management, reduce dental problems, and improve their healthy living quality.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景及動機 1
第二節 研究重要性 4
第三節 研究目的 6
第四節 名詞界定 7
第二章 文獻回顧 9
第一節 口腔健康生活品質 9
第二節 牙周病 11
第三節 牙周治療 13
第四節 糖尿病 16
第五節 牙周病與糖尿病之關係 17
第三章 研究方法 19
第一節 研究設計 19
第二節 研究架構 21
第三節 研究假設 22
第四節 研究倫理 23
第五節 研究對象及資料收集 24
第六節 研究工具 25
第七節 介入措施 27
第八節 統計分析 28
第四章 結果與討論 29
第一節 牙周病人基本屬性分佈 30
第二節 口腔健康影響概況特性分佈 34
第三節 整體生活品質特性分佈 38
第四節 疾病特性與生活品質之相關性 43
第五節 基本屬性與生活品質之相關性 45
第六節 生活品質經介入措施後之成效 51
第七節 糖尿病疾病特性經介入措施後之成效 57
第五章 結論、討論與建議 61
第一節 研究結果結論 61
第二節 結果討論 64
第三節 研究限制 67
第四節 後續研究建議 68
參考文獻 69
一、中文文獻部分 69
二、英文文獻部分 72
附錄一 人體試驗∕研究同意證明書 80
附錄二 牙周病人經治療後之生活品質問卷 81
A.基本資料 81
B.口腔健康相關生活品質 83
C.台灣簡明版世界衛生組織生活品質問卷 84
一、中文文獻部分
王貝婷、謝明家、洪信嘉、何坤炎、蔡吉政(2008)•第二型糖尿病病人牙周健康狀況與血糖控制之相關性探討•臺灣口腔醫學科學雜誌,24,23—36。
方光明(2006)•牙科解剖與形態學•臺北市:合記。
台灣牙周病醫學會 (2018) •取自:http://www.twperio.org.tw/vocabulary-d.php
何延鑫、黃久美、郭鐘隆(2005)•糖尿病患者心理社會調適、因應方式與衛教需求之關係•實證護理,1(3),165-175。
林煜哲、林哲堂、蔡恒惠(2010)•中文版自覺口腔健康衝擊量表之發展評估•中華民國家庭牙醫學雜誌,5(3),19—23•doi:10.6566/JFD/2010.5(3).19
林冠品、曾士婷、熊德筠、陳伯中、郭志宏(2008) •疾病狀況、憂鬱與糖尿病個案生活品質之相關探討•弘光學報,53,83–94•Doi:10.6615/HAR.200808.53.07。
周歆凱、林怡君、蔡明足、翁林仲、楊佩璇(2010)•探討區域醫院候診病人對數位學習之認知及衛生教育需求•澄清醫護管理雜誌,6(1),12-20。
許玲欣(2005)•糖尿病患者的口腔病徵及牙科醫療對策•北市醫學雜誌,2 ( 9 ) ,859—865• doi:10.6200/TCMJ.2005.2.9.12
胡文郁、戴玉慈、陳慶餘、陳月枝(2003)•生活品質之概念分析─於探討癌末病人健康相關生活品質之應用•安寧療護雜誌,8(1),45-60。
姚振華(2001)•牙科公共衛生學。臺北市:編譯館。
姚開屏(2002)•台灣簡明版世界衛生組織生活品質問卷之發展與應用•台灣醫學,6(3),193-200。
陳鈺如、吳月珠、林育姿、李靜茹、黃建寧(2014)•老年糖尿病管理•中華民國糖尿病衛教學會會訊,10(1),8–10。Doi:10.6583/TADE.2014.10(1).4。
張媚(2009)•糖尿病個案管理•護理雜誌,56(2),22–27。
曹政峰(2016)•糖尿病與老年族群•中華民國糖尿病衛教學會會訊,12(1),2–6,Doi:10.6583/TADE.2016.12(1).2
黃妙珍、夏華、郭鐘隆、張萩勤(2013)•評估醫學中心冠心病患者衛生教育需求之研究•健康促進與衛生教育學報,40,1-33。
傅振宗、楊文琴(2003)•糖尿病患的護心運動•基層醫學,18(5),124–127。
黃喬欣、林碧珠、張媚、李碧霞(2017)•糖尿病病人自我照護行為及相關因素研究•護理雜誌,64(1),61–69•Doi:10.6224/JN.000009
鄭增鎰、何佩珊、謝天渝、蔡吉政、楊奕馨(2008)•牙周疾病與生活品質相關性研究•台灣口腔醫學科學雜誌,24,149—160。
蔡如怡、胡慧蘭(2005)。第二型糖尿病合併症之危險因子控制-ABC管理•護理雜誌,52(5),65–70•Doi:10.6224/JN.52.5.65
衛生福利部心理及口腔健康司 (2018) •取自:https://dep.mohw.gov.tw /DOMHAOH/cp-486-1917-107.html
衛生福利部國民健康署(2017年11月23日)•104年健康促進統計年報•取自:http://www.hpa.gov.tw/Pages/Detail.aspx?nodeid=268&pid=7977。
衛生福利部 (2018) •105年國人死因統計結果•取自:https:/ /www. mohw. gov. tw /cp-16-33598-1.html
衛生福利部心理及口腔健康司 (2018) •2007-2008台灣18歲以上人口牙周狀況及保健行為之調查研究•取自:https://dep.mohw.gov.tw/DOMHAOH/ cp-486-1917-107.html
鄭信忠 ( 2007 ) •口腔保健。臺北市:晨星。
魏郁如、賴玉敏、林怡君、李士元、季麟揚 ( 2007 ) •慢性牙周炎和侵犯性牙周炎的診斷一致性評估•中華牙誌,26 ( 2 ),114—124
賴昭翰、呂炫堃(2015)•牙周炎和糖尿病在臺灣盛行狀況與東西方流行病學文獻回顧•中華牙周醫誌,20 ( 2 ),103—118•DOI: 10.6121/TAP.2015.20.2.04
謝宗穎、呂雅媛、杜裕康(2015)•劑量與效應反應的統合分析之應用:以血糖值與牙周病間的關係為例•台灣衛誌,34 ( 5 ),521—533
謝惠玲等合著(2015) •新編老人護理學•台中,華格那企業。
駱蔓萱、郭曉菁、楊奕馨(2011)•牙科治療前後對患者口腔健康相關生活品質之影響•臺灣口腔醫學科學雜誌,27(2),108—124
蔡世澤(2000)•臺灣糖尿病照護現況與省思•臨床醫學,45 ( 5 ),316—320

二、英文文獻部分
American Academy of Periodontology (2000). Diabetes and Periodontal disease. Committee on Research, Science and Therapy. Journal of Periodontology, 71(4), 664-678. From: https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2000.71.4.664
American Diabetes Association. (2017). Statistics About Diabetes. from: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/?loc=superfooter
Babalola, D. A., & Omole, F. (2010). Periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes. Journal of Pregnancy, 2010, 293439. doi:10.1155/2010/293439
Brauchle, F., Noack, M., & Reich, E. (2013). Impact of periodontal disease and periodontal therapy on oral health-related quality of life. International Dental Journal, 63(6), 306-311. doi:10.1111/idj.12042
Buset, S. L., Walter, C., Friedmann, A., Weiger, R., Borgnakke, W. S., & Zitzmann, N. U. (2016). Are periodontal diseases really silent? A systematic review of their effect on quality of life. Journal of Clinical eriodontol, 43(4), 333-344. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12517
Chang, T. J., Jiang, Y. D., Chang, C. H., Chung, C. H., Yu, N. C., & Chuang, L. M. (2012). Accountability, utilization and providers for diabetes management in Taiwan, 2000–2009: An analysis of the National Health Insurance database. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 111(11), 605–616. doi:10.1016/j.jfma2012.09.011
Ching-Ju Chiu., & Linda A. Wray. (2010). Factors predicting glycemic control in middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes. Preventing Chronic Disease. 7(1): A08.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association. DOI--10.1002/cncr.25251
Costa, F. O., Susin, C., Cortelli, J. R., & Pordeus, I. A. (2012). Epidemiology of periodontal disease. International Journal of Dentistry, 2012, 848641. doi:10.1155/2012/848641
Ferreira MC., Dias-Pereira AC., Branco-de-Almeida LS., Martins CC & Paiva SM.(2017). Impact of periodontal disease on quality of life: a systematic review. Journal of Periodontal Research, 52(4), 651-665. doi:10.1111/jre.12436
FH Nociti Jr., MZ Casati., & PM Duarte. (2015). Current perspective of the impact of smoking on the progression and treatment of periodontitis.Periodontology 2000, 67(1), 187–210. doi:10.1111 / prd.12063
Firatli, E. (1997). The realationship between clinical periodontal status and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Result after 5 years. Journal of Periodontology, 68(2) , 136-140. doi:10.1902/jop.1997.68.2.136
Goel, K., Pradhan, S., & Bhattarai, M. D. (2017). Effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in patients with moderately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis in Nepalese population. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry, 9, 73-80. doi:10.2147/CCIDE.S138338
Holmstrup, P., Damgaard, C., Olsen, I., Klinge, B., Flyvbjerg, A., Nielsen, C. H., & Hansen, P. R. (2017). Comorbidity of periodontal disease: two sides of the same coin? An introduction for the clinician. Journal of Oral Microbiology, 9(1), 1332710. doi:10.1080/20002297.2017.1332710
Huang, D. L., Chang, K. C., & Young, B. A. (2013). Poor oral health and quality of life in older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 61(10), 1782-1788. doi:10.1111/jgs.12452
Jansson, H., Wahlin, A., Johansson, V., Akerman, S., Lundegren, N., Isberg, P. E., & Norderyd, O. (2014). Impact of periodontal disease experience on oral health-related quality of life. Journal of Periodontol, 85(3), 438-445. doi: 10. 1902/jop.2013.130188
John ,V., Alqallaf, H., & Tatiana D.B. (2016). Periodontal Disease and Systemic Diseases: An Update for the Clinician. Journal of the Indiana Dental Association, 95(1), 16-23.
Ioanna G.Chouvarda., Dimitrios G.Goulis., Irene Lambrinoudaki., Nicos Maglaveras. (2015). Connected health and integrated care: Toward new models for chronic disease management. Maturitas, 82(1), 22–27. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.03.015
Ka-Fang Hu., Hsiao-Ching Kuo., Yi-Hsin Yang., Kun-Yen Ho., & Yu-Hsiang Chou., (2016). Oral and General Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) among Patients Undergoing Periodontal Treatment and Regular Supportive Periodontal Treatment (SPT). Journal of Taiwan Periodontol, 21(1). doi: 10.6121/ TAP.2016. 21.1.04
Kebschull M., Papapanou R.T., & Demmer P.N. (2010).Gum bug, leave my heart alone- epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence linking periodontal infections and atherosclerosis. Journal of Dental Research, 89(9):879-902. doi: 10. 1177 /0022034510375281
Kudiyirickal, M. G., & Pappachan, J. M. (2015). Diabetes mellitus and oral health. Endocrine, 49(1), 27-34. doi:10.1007/s12020-014-0496-3
Lalla, E., & Papapanou, P. N. (2011). Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis: a tale of two common interrelated diseases. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 7(12), 738-748. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2011.106
Lalla, R. V., & D''Ambrosio, J. A. (2001). Dental management considerations for the patient 28 with diabetes mellitus. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 132(10), 1425-1432. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive. 2001.0059   
Li, Q., Hao, S., Fang, J., Xie, J., Kong, X. H., & Yang, J. X. (2015). Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on glycemic control of patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Trials, 16, 291. doi:10.1186/s13063-015-0810-2
Loesche, W. J., & Grossman, N. S. (2001). Periodontal disease as a specific, albeit chronic, infection: diagnosis and treatment. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 14(4), 727-752, table of contents. doi:10.1128/CMR.14.4.727-752.2001
Mauri-Obradors, E., Estrugo-Devesa, A., Jane-Salas, E., Vinas, M., & Lopez-Lopez, J. (2017). Oral manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus. A systematic review. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 22(5), e586-e594. doi:10.4317/medoral.21655
Mervyn Turton., Charlene W. J. Africa., (2017). Further evidence for periodontal disease as a risk indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes. International Dental Journal,67(3), 148-156. doi: 10.1111/idj.12274.
Moore, P. A., Guggenheimer, J., Etzel, K. R., Weyant, R. J., & Orchard, T. (2001). Type 1 diabetes mellitus, xerostomia, and salivary flow rates. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology, 92(3), 281-291. doi:10.1067/moe.2001.117815
National Cholesterol Education program, NCEP. From::https:// www. nhlbi. nih. gov/ health- topics/metabolic-syndrome
National Diabetes Education Program, NDEP. From: https:// www.cdc.gov / diabetes/ ndep/ index.html
Nazir MA, (2017). Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. International Journal of Health Sciences (Qassim). 11(2): 72–80.
Rees, T. D. (2000). Periodontal management of the patient with diabetes mellitus. Periodontol 2000, 23(1), 63-72. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0757.2000.2230105.x
Ronald Klein., Barbara E. K. Klein., & Scot E. Moss (1996). Relation of glycemic control to diabetic microvasular complication in diabetes mellitus. Annals of Internal Medicine, 124(1, Pt. 2), 90–96.
S.Katagiri., H.Nitta., T.Nagasawa., I.Uchimura., H.Izumiyama., K.Inagaki., T.Kikuchi., T.Noguchi., M.Kanazawa., A.Matsuo., H.Chiba., N.Nakamura., N.Kanamura., S.Inoue., I.Ishikawa., & Y.Izumi (2009). Multi-center intervention study on glycohemoglobin (HbA1C) and serum, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) after local anti-infectious periodontal treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 83(3), 308-315. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2008.10.016
Safkan-Seppala, B., & Ainamo, J. (1992). Periodontal conditions in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Jounral of Clinical Periodontolol, 19(1), 24-29.
Saito M, Shimazaki Y, Nonoyama T, Tadokoro Y. ( 2017 ). Association between dental visits for periodontal treatment and type 2 diabetes mellitus in an elderly Japanese cohort. Jounral of Clinical Periodontolol. 44(11):1133-1139. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12804.
Sandberg GE, Sundberg HE, Wikblad KF. ( 2017 ). A controlled study of oral self-care and self perceived oral health in type 2 diabetic patients. Acta Odontol Scand.;59:29-33.
Seppala, B., Seppala, M., & Ainamo, J. (1993). A longitudinal study on insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. Jounral of Clinical Periodontology, 20(3), 161-165. doi : 10. 1111/j. 1600-051X. 1993. tb00338.x
Shanbhag, S., Dahiya, M., & Croucher, R. (2012). The impact of periodontal therapy on oral health-related quality of life in adults: a systematic review. Jounral of Clinical Periodontology, 39(8), 725-735. doi: 10.1111/j. 1600-051X. 2012. 01910.x
Ship, J. A. (2003). Diabetes and oral health. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 134, 4S-10S. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2003.0367
Shrivastava, S. R., Shrivastava, P. S., & Ramasamy, J. (2013). Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 12(1), 14. doi:10.1186/2251-6581-12-14
Slade GD, Spencer AJ.(1994). Development and evaluation of the Oral Health Impact Profile. Community Dent Health, 11(1):3-11.
Soell M, Hassan M, Miliauskaite A, Haïkel Y., & Selimovic D. (2007). The oral cavity of elderly patients in diabetes. Diabetes Metab, 33, S10-18.
Soskolne, W. A. (1998). Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Periodontal Diseases in Diabetics. Annals of Periodontology, 3(1), 3-12. doi:10.1902/ annals. 1998 .3.1.3
Stewart, J. E., Wager, K. A., Friedlander, A. H., & Zadeh, H. H. (2001). The effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 28(4), 306-310. doi: 10.1034/j. 1600-051x.2001.028004306.x
Stratton, I. M., Adler, A. I., Neil, H. A., Matthews, D. R., Manley, S. E., Cull, C. A., Hadden, D., Turner, R.C., & Holman, R. R. (2000). Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. Bmj, 321(7258), 405-412.
Swapna K Verma, Nan Luo, Mythily Subramaniam, Chee Fang Sum, Dorit Stahl, Pei Hsiang Liow, Siow Ann Chong. Impact of Depression on Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetes. (2010). Ann Acad Med Singapore. 39(12), 913-9.
Teeuw, W. J., Gerdes, V. E., & Loos, B. G. (2010). Effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control of diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 33(2), 421-427. doi:10.2337/dc09-1378
Terry C Simpson., Jo C Weldon., Helen V Worthington., Ian Needleman., Sarah H Wild., David R Moles., Brian Stevenson., Susan Furness., & Zipporah Iheozor‐Ejiofor. (2015). Treatment of periodontal disease for glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 6;(11):CD004714.doi: 10.1002/14651858. CD004714.pub3.
Tervonen, T., & Karjalainen, K. (1997). Periodontal disease related to diabetic status. A pilot study of the response to periodontal therapy in type 1 diabetes. Jounral of Clinical Periodontology, 24(7), 505-510.
Thorstensson, H., & Hugoson, A. (1993). Periodontal disease experence in adult long-duration insulin-dependent diabetics. Jounral of Clinical Periodontology, 20(5), 352-358. doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.1993.tb00372.x
Tobin, C. T., (2004). 7 basic principles of diabetes care. Home Healthcare Nurse, 22(7), 491–495.
Twetman, S., Johansson, I., Birkhed, D., & Nederfors, T. (2002). Caries incidence in young Type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in relation to metabolic control and caries-associated risk factors. Caries Research, 36(1), 31-35.
The American Academy of Periodontology, AAP, from: https: //www. perio. org/ consumer / types-gum-disease. Html
Wang, T. F., Fang, C. H., Hsiao, K. J., & Chou, C. (2018). Effect of a comprehensive plan for periodontal disease care on oral health-related quality of life in patients with periodontal disease in Taiwan. Medicine (Baltimore), 97(5), e9749. doi:10.1097/ MD. 0000000000009749
Wagner, V. M., Muller-Godeffroy, E. von Sengbusch, S., Hager, S. & Thyen, U. (2005). Age, metabolic control and type of insulin regime influences health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Pediatric, 164, 491–496.
Wilson, S. H., Kennedy, F. P., & Garratt, K. N. (2001). Optimisation of the management of patients with coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs & Aging, 18(5), 325-333.
UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients is affected by complications but not by intensive policies to improve blood glucose or blood pressure control (UKPDS 37) (1999). Diabetes Care; 22, 1125-36.
World Health Organization, from: http://www.who.int/oral_health/policy/en/
World Dental Federation, Switzerland. (2017). FDI''s definition of oral health. from: https://www.fdiworlddental.org/oral-health/fdis-definition-of-oral-health
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔