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研究生:沈伯鍵
研究生(外文):Po-Chien Shen
論文名稱:火炸藥熔裝製程品質提升之研究
論文名稱(外文):An Investigation on Process Quality Improvement for Melt-Casting of Explosive
指導教授:郭振明
指導教授(外文):Chen-Ming Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:義守大學
系所名稱:機械與自動化工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:熔裝炸藥電腦圖控熱指
外文關鍵詞:melt-casting explosivecomputer graphics controlProbing
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現行軍工廠大口徑彈藥生產,目前彈體裝藥採熔裝裝藥方式為主;僅少數採壓裝方式。熔裝方式灌藥之彈體須經熱指道次消除氣泡及孔隙,再經冷卻過程而凝固。本研究目的在探討最佳裝填方式及設備,並精進生產製程與設備安全性,俾利彈藥生產順遂,降低生產製程中的彈藥缺陷及危安因子。
舊式設備採單機模式及人工作業,所有操作包含設備溫度變化及操作參數,皆由作業人員監控,易造成製程品質不穩定。因此,本研究藉由設備更新,汰換舊式生產製程,並由電腦圖控監控與設定全線操作參數及溫度,大幅減少人為因素干擾及誤判,穩定生產品質。同時,設備採用國際最新耐壓防爆標準IECEx(International Engineering Consortium for Explosive Atmospheres)認證建置,提升作業人員人身安全,及減低火炸藥發生意外的風險。
本研究重點在關鍵道次熱指深度,以B炸藥(RDX/TNT 60/40)為測試用炸藥,並以105公厘高爆戰防曳光彈(105 mm HEAT-T)作為測試樣本,先將製程中設備操作溫度、熱指冷卻時間固定,深入探討熱指深度之深淺對彈體內部氣泡及孔隙之影響,並利用X光檢驗彈體內部裝藥缺陷,獲得最佳設定熱指深度為75 mm。
At present, the production of large-calibre ammunition in military Arsenals is mainly based on the method of melt casting and pressing the explosives. The melt-casting shells must eliminate bubbles and porosity by probing process, and then it is solidified by the cooling process.
The purpose of this study is to explore the best filling methods and equipments, and to improve the safety of production processes and equipment, so we can produce smoothly ammunition and reduce ammunition defects and critical factors in the production process.
The Old equipment adopts single machine mode and manual operation. All operations that include equipment temperature changes and operating parameters are monitored by operators, which cause unstable process quality. Therefore, this study greatly reduce interference of the human factors and misjudgment and stabilize production quality by replacing the old production process and equipment upgrade, and monitor and set the operating parameters and temperature of the whole line by computer graphics control.
At the same time, the equipment adopts the latest international explosion-proof standard IECEx(International Engineering Consortium for Explosive Atmospheres)Certification to improve the operators safety and reduce the risk of any accidents by explosives.
This key point of study focuses on the probing depth. The study plans to use Composition B (RDX/TNT 60/40) as the melt-casting explosive and 105mm High Explosive Anti-Tank-Tracer (105mm HEAT-T) as a sample. First, we fix theequipment operating temperature and probing time data in the process of melting and filling. Second, we will study and test on the influence of the depth of the probing for the bubbles and the porosity on the inside of the projectile, and use X-ray to inspect the internal filling defects of the projectile. The result of the best probing depth setting is 75 mm.
中文摘要 .............................................. II
英文摘要.............................................. III
誌謝 ................................................. V
總目錄................................................ VI
圖目錄.............................................. VIII
表目錄................................................. X
第一章 緒論............................................. 1
1.1 前言............................................... 1
1.2 研究背景與動機 ..................................... 1
1.3 研究目的............................................ 2
第二章 文獻探討......................................... 3
2.1 炸藥性能介紹........................................ 3
2.1.1 TNT– (2, 4, 6 Trinitrotoluene) 三硝基甲苯......... 3
2.1.2 B炸藥Composition B (RDX/TNT 60/40)............... 7
2.1.3 RDX (Research Department Explosives)............ 10
2.2.1收縮............................................. 13
2.2.2裂縫............................................. 15
2.2.3細小和微細孔隙.................................... 16
2.2.4分離............................................. 18
2.2.5炸藥增生.......................................... 19
2.3 熱點-Hot Spot學說介紹.............................. 21
第三章 研究方法........................................ 23
3.1 研究架構........................................... 23
3.2 研究測試用料....................................... 25
3.3 研究儀器設備....................................... 25
3.3.1篩檢模組.......................................... 26
3.3.2熔藥模組.......................................... 27
3.3.3混藥模組.......................................... 28
3.3.4灌藥模組.......................................... 29
3.3.5熱指模組......................................... 30
3.3.6冷卻模組.......................................... 31
3.3.7拔漏斗模組........................................ 32
3.3.8 X光模組......................................... 33
3.4研究過程............................................ 35
3.4.1第一階段.......................................... 35
3.4.2第二階段.......................................... 40
第四章 結果與討論...................................... 41
4.1 研究結果........................................... 41
4.1.1 X-光照相檢驗規範................................. 41
4.1.2 X-光照相檢驗結果................................. 42
4.2 討論.............................................. 45
第五章 結論及未來展望.................................. 48
5.1結論............................................... 48
5.2未來展望............................................ 51
參考文獻............................................... 52
[1] 陳建璟,以 TNT 為基之熔裝炸藥熱特性分析研究,碩士論文,國防大學理工學院化學及材料工程系,台北,台灣,2018。
[2] 林淑敏,利用超臨界CO2流體改善TNT裝藥製程之研究,碩士論文,國防大學理工學院化學及材料工程學系,台北,台灣,2015。
[3] Jörg Mathieu and Hans Stucki, “Military High Explosives,” Chimia 58, No. 6 , 2004, pp.383-389.
[4] Rheinmetall Denel Munition, “Explosives And Filling Technology,” Medium-large Calibre Ammunition Melting & Filling System Training Program, 2015.
[5] Composition B,Type I, Grade A,Military Specification,MIL-C-401E,13 March,1974。
[6] T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives, Vol. 3, pp.77, Pergamon Press, Oxford, (1988).
[7] D. I. A. Millar, I. D. H Oswald, D. J. Francis, W. G. Marshall, C. R. Pulham,A. S. Cumming. Chemical Communications (2009), p. 562-564.
[8] 沈新明,火炸藥爆炸特性與危害預防,火工作業主管訓練班教育訓練,技訓中心,台北,台灣,2012。
[9] 中大口徑彈藥生產及組裝線機具設備更新案「契約附加條款」,國防部軍備局生產製造中心第二○二廠,台北,台灣,2012。
[10] 孫陽,孟凡軍,高君,楊浩,賈云鵬,何毅,張宏光,郭洪斌,“球注法裝藥與注裝法裝藥的工藝特性”,兵工自動化,第 32卷,第1期,第75-78頁,2013。
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