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研究生:張正賢
論文名稱:緬甸羅興亞難民問題分析: 安全化的視角
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of the Myanmar Rohingya refugees crisis: a securitization perspective
指導教授:姜家雄姜家雄引用關係
口試委員:李明盧業中
口試日期:2019-01-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:外交學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:羅興亞難民安全化東協
外文關鍵詞:RohingyaSecuritizationRefugeeASEAN
相關次數:
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
羅興亞人是主要生活在緬甸若開邦(Rakhine State)的少數民族。由於羅興亞族發展歷史、緬甸的種族政策及政治變遷等因素,導致羅興亞人與緬甸政府或若開邦其他族群長年發生衝突。2012至2017年在若開邦發生三次羅興亞衝突事件,使緬甸政府動用軍隊及警察進行暴力鎮壓及非人道措施,嚴重威脅羅興亞人的生命。大量羅興亞人為求自保而逃離家園。
2015年企圖前往東南亞鄰國的海上羅興亞難民人數達到高峰,東南亞國家因不堪負荷皆採取「推回政策」,僅給予尋求收容的難民少量食物、飲水及燃料,便將船隻推回海上,造成大量海上羅興亞難民傷亡,也引發國際社會的人道譴責,是為「羅興亞難民危機」。2015下半年,馬來西亞、印尼及泰國在壓力下改變原先不願接納難民的態度,轉而將羅興亞難民危機視為東南亞的區域安全問題,展開對話與合作以謀共同、具體的解決方案。2015至2018年東協成員國也改變原先不願指摘緬甸內政為名而不願正視羅興亞難民問題的態度。
本論文的研究目的是探討羅興亞難民危機的來龍去脈,包括: 其背景、成因、發展過程、與之相關的東南亞各國採行的應對措施,最後是探討其造成的衝擊與影響。本論文的研究方法採取「文獻分析法」及「歷史回顧法」,並以「安全化理論」為途徑,根據理論架構與假設來分析東南亞相關國家對於羅興亞難民的處置措施。本論文的研究成果有以下兩點: 第一,欲探討羅興亞難民問題,應背後複雜的政治、種族、歷史成因著手。其與緬甸政府及其他族群的恩怨是雙向的、具脈絡性的。將之視為單純的迫害事件,片面地指責任一方,將難以了解此問題的核心與癥結點,對解決問題亦無幫助。第二,羅興亞難民危機爆發前後,東南亞各國所採行的政策皆符合安全化理論的假設。2015年以前是國家安全化的過程,2015年後危機升級成區域安全問題,東南亞各國則展開區域安全化。其目的,最終都在於追求本國之安全。
The Rohingyan are ethnic minorities who mainly live in Rakhine State, Myanmar.
Due to history of the Rohingyan, ethnic policies and political changes in Myanmar, the Rohingyan people have been in conflict with the Myanmar government or other ethnic groups in Rakhine State for many years. From 2012 to 2017, the Rohingya conflicts in Rakhine State caused the Myanmar government to use the military and police to carry out violent repression and inhumane measures, which seriously threatened the life of the Rohingyan people. A large number of Rohingyan people fled their homes in order to protect themselves.
In 2015, the number of Rohingya refugees who attempted to travel to
neighboring countries in Southeast Asia had reached a peak. Southeast Asian countries adopted a “pushback policy”. Only a small amount of food, water and fuel were given to the refugees who were pushed back to sea. This policy has caused a large number of casualties of Rohingya refugees at sea, and also caused severe humanitarian condemnation of the international community.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the context of the Rohingya refugee
crisis, including: its background, causes, development process, related measures adopted by Southeast Asian countries, and finally the impact and impact. To explore the issue of Rohingya refugees, we have to start with the complicated political, ethnic and historical causes behind it. Conflicts between the Myanmar government and other ethnic groups are two-way and contextual. Treating it as a simple persecution incident, unilaterally referring to the responsible party, will be difficult to understand the core and crux of the problem, and will not help solve the problem.
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 文獻回顧 5
第四節 研究途徑與研究方法 16
第五節 研究範圍與研究限制 17
第六節 章節安排 19
第貳章 羅興亞難民事件及其背景 21
第一節 羅興亞人的歷史 22
第二節 羅興亞人與緬甸族群衝突 24
第三節 羅興亞人與緬甸政治環境 29
第四節 2012-2017三次羅興亞難民事件 34
第參章 羅興亞難民事件之衝擊 40
第一節 羅興亞難民的動向 40
第二節 週邊國家對羅興亞難民的政策與措施 45
第三節 羅興亞難民危機所造成的衝擊 50
第四節 羅興亞難民危機的區域化 55
第肆章 安全化視角下的羅興亞難民危機 63
第一節 各國作為的安全化分析 64
第二節 東協作為的區域安全化分析 71
第三節 羅興亞難民危機區域化的困難 79
第四節 東協整合中羅興亞難民的機會 84
第伍章 結論 92
第一節 研究發現 92
第二節 未來展望 96
參考書目 98
壹、 中文部分
一、 專書
方天賜等著。《台灣與非傳統安全》。台北: 五南出版,2018年。

王福邁。《國際法與難民》。台北:中正書局,1990年。

李瓊莉等著。《東南亞區域整合 : 臺.灣.觀.點》。臺北市 : 財團法人中華經濟研究院台灣東亞國家協會研究中心,2012年。

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楊昊編著。《東亞的理論與理論的東亞:當代國際關係理論與區域實踐的對話》。台北市: 洪業文化,2015年。

Richard Cockett原著,廖婉如譯。《變臉的緬甸:一個由血、夢想和黃金構成的國度》。台北: 馬可孛羅出版,2016年。

Earl Babbiem原著,蔡毓智譯。《研究方法:基礎理論與技巧》。台北: 雙葉書廊,2013年。

二、 期刊論文
丁麗興。〈緬甸與孟加拉國關係中的羅興亞難民問題─孟加拉國視角〉。《東南亞研究》,第 6 期,2010 年,頁18-23。

王夢平。〈緬甸羅興亞族問題簡介〉。《國際資料資訊》,第 7 期,2009年,頁 9-10。

司徒宇、顧長永。〈緬甸大選局外人-羅興亞族的悲歌〉。《戰略安全研
析》,127期,2015年,頁30-37。

宋興洲、林佩霓。〈東南亞國協與區域安全〉。《全球政治評論》,第二十五期,2009年,頁1-52。

李濤。〈緬甸羅興亞人問題的歷史變遷初探〉。《東南亞研究》,第4期,2009 年 5 月,頁69-74。

李瓊莉。〈東協區域衝突管理機制與角色探討〉。《台灣東南亞學刊》,第7卷第2期,2010年,頁3-20。

李瓊莉。〈經濟安全概念在亞太地區的發展〉。《問題與研究》,第38卷第2期,1999年,頁39-54。

金榮勇。〈東亞金融風暴對東協組織的影響〉。《問題與研究》,38卷第2期,1999年,頁55-68。

張國書。〈西方與亞洲在人權觀念上的對抗?─淺介國際人權法概念中的普遍性原則與文化 相對主義〉。《新世紀智庫論壇》,第8期,1999年,頁65-72。

郭秋梅、盧勇。〈緬甸羅興亞人問題產生原因初探〉。《東南亞研究》,第 3 期,2014年,頁 86-90。

郭秋梅。〈身分認同視域下的緬甸羅興亞人問題探析〉。《東南亞研究》,第 1 期,2014 年,頁10-13。

劉風。〈難民問題對國家衝突及不安全感的影響研究─以羅興亞難民問題為例〉。《法制博覽》,第18 期,2015 年 6 月,頁 18-19。

蔡育岱、譚偉恩。〈從國家到個人: 人類安全概念之分析〉。《問題與研
究》,第47卷第1 期,2008年,頁151-183。

蔡育岱。〈轉變中的區域秩序人類安全概念在東亞的發展與「應用」〉。《東亞的理論與理論的東亞:當代國際關係理論與區域實踐的對話》,(台北市: 洪業文化,2015年,頁78-106。

戴萬平。〈從羅興亞難民潮談緬甸的族群問題〉。《戰略安全研析》,第122期,2015年,頁12-20。

三、 博碩士論文
王筱媛。〈從緬甸羅興亞難民探討國際社會的難民問題〉,碩士論文,國立中正大學戰略暨國際事務研究所,2016年6月。

林依靜。〈難民人權保障國際規範內涵與實踐之研究〉。碩士論文,國立東華大學財經法律研究所,2007年6月。

林靖諺。〈從公民到難民: 緬甸羅興亞穆斯林離散之研究〉。博士論
文,國立政治大學國家發展所,2017年6月。

四、 網路期刊與專文
〈羅興亞難民特別會議 聯合國直指緬甸是禍首〉。自由時報。
http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/breakingnews/1332805 (檢索日期: 2017年5月29日)

〈你知道緬甸歷史上是什麼樣子的嗎?〉。每日頭條。
https://kknews.cc/zh-tw/history/g9jbv8.html (檢索日期: 2016年8月22日)

〈被真主遺忘的民族:漫談緬甸洛興雅人的困境〉。洞見國際事務評論網。
http://www.insight-post.tw/editor-pick/south-east-asia/20140311/6730 (檢索日期:2017年1月16日。)

〈2015年羅興亞人難民危機〉。Wikiwand。
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/2015%E5%B9%B4%E7%BE%85%E8%88%88%E4%BA%9E%E4%BA%BA%E9%9B%A3%E6%B0%91%E5%8D%B1%E6%A9%9F (檢索日期:2017年2月5日。)

〈誰是緬甸「全國停火協議」的最大贏家?〉。端傳媒。
https://theinitium.com/article/20151016-dailynews-myanmar-ceasefire-deal/ (檢索日期: 2017年1月25日。)

〈翁山蘇姬訪歐盟:反對UN「干涉」羅興亞問題〉,轉角國際,
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〈印度政府要將四萬羅興亞人驅逐出境?〉,BBC中文網,
https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/world-41385250,(檢索日期: 2018年 11月25日。)

〈羅興亞人的邊境漂流,究竟何去何從?〉,關鍵評論網,
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貳、 英文部分
一、 官方文件
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content/uploads/2015/12/ASEAN-2025-Forging-Ahead-Together-final.pdf,
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http://www.unhcr.org/afr/publications/brochures/3b779dfe2/protecting-refugees-questions-answers.html, (accessed December 2, 2018)

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“ Trafficking in Persons Report 2015,” The U.S. Departmen of State,
https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/245365.pdf, (accessed
September 20, 2018)

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“UNDP, Human Development Report 1994 (Newyork: Oxford University Press, 1994)

“UN High Commissioner for Refugees(UNHCR), Mid-Year Trends 2015, (Geneva, Switzerland)

Crisp, Jeff.” Policy challenges of the new diaspora: migrant networks and their impact on asylum flows and regimes,” New Issues in Refugee Research Working Paper, No.7, UNHCR, Geneva,.

Dryden-Peterson Sarah.” Local integration as a durable solution: refugees, host populations and education in Uganda,” New Issues in Refugee Research Working Paper, No.93, UNHCR, Geneva, p.14.

二、 專書
Acharya, Amitav. Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the Problem of Regional Order. London: Routledge 2 edition, 2009.

Ahemd, Imtiaz. The Plight of the Stateless Rohingyas. Dhaka: The University Press, 2010.

Buzan, Barry. People, State and Fear: An Agenda for Internation Security Studies in the Post-cold War Era. New York: Harvard Wheastsheaf, 1991.

Buzan, Barry. Waever, Ole and De Wilde, Jaap. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1997.

Caballero-Anthony, Mely. Political Change, Democratic Transitions and Security in Southeast Asia. London ; New York : Routledge, 2010.

Scherrer, Christian. Structural Prevention of Ethnic Violence. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Keohane, Robert O and Nye, Joseph S. Power and Interdependence. Longman Classics in Political Science, 2011.

Romm, Joseph. J. Defining National Ssecurity: the Nonmilitary Aspects. Pew Project on America's Task in a Changed World. Council on Foreign Relations: Pew Project Series, 2010.

Waltz, Kenneth N. Theory of International Politics. Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1979.

Wendt, Alexander. Social Theory of International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Wolfers, Arnold. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics.Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962.

三、 期刊論文
Caballero-Anthony, M. “The New Security Agenda in Asia,” The Rouledge Hnadbook of Asian Security Studies(2010), pp. 311-313.

Cheesman, Nick. “How in Myanmar “National Races” Came to Surpass Citizenship and Exclude Rohingya,” Contemporary Asia, vol. 47 (2017), pp. 461-483.

Fukushima, A. “East versus West? Debate and Convergence on Human Security,” Human Security in East Asia: Challenges for Collaorative Action(2009), pp. 46-60.

Howe, Adam. “Discourses of Exclusion: The Societal Securitization of Burma’s Rohingya (2012–2018),” Asian Security and International Affairs, vol. 5 (2018), pp. 245-266.

Jati, Irawan and Sunderland, Emily. “Playing with Words: The Securitization Construction of ‘Refugee’ in ASEAN Politics,” Jurnal Hubungan International, vol. 6, no. 2 (2017), pp. 247-255.

Kyaw, Nyi-Nyi. “Alienation, Discrimination, and Securitization: Legal Personhood and Cultural Personhood of Muslims in Myanmar,” The Review of Faith & International Affairs, vol. 13 (2015). pp. 50-59.

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四、 博碩士論文
Swartbol, Martijn. “An Old Line in the Sand: The Rohingya Crisis’ Effect on ASEAN Political Integration,” Master Thesis, Utrecht University,
Netherland (2018).

Thein, Myint. “The Problem of Muslim National Identity in Myanmar,” Ph. D. Thesis, Internaional Islamic University Malaysia (2012).

五、 網路期刊與專文
“Abandoned at Sea,”UNHCR.
http://www.unhcr.org/news/stories/2015/8/56ec1eabd/abandoned- at-sea.html?query=rohingya, (accessed May 26, 2016)

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https://www.hrw.org/report/2013/04/22/all-you-can-do-pray/crimes-against-humanity-and-ethnic-cleansing-rohingya-muslims, (accessed February 8, 2017)

“Bay of Bengal people-smuggling doubles in 2015: UNHCR,” Reuters.
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-rohingya-unhcr/bay-of-bengal-people-smuggling-doubles-in-2015-unhcr-idUSKBN0NT11D20150508, (accessed February 8, 2017)

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https://www.hrw.org/report/2002/07/18/crackdown-burmese-muslims, (accessed Juanuary 21, 2017)

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https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/ASA2125742015ENGLISH.PDF, (accessed October 25, 2018)

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(accessed Juanuary 20, 2017)

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“Migrants rescued from sinking boat off Indonesia's Aceh,” BBC NEWS,
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Joe Cochrane, “ Indonisia and Malaysia Agree to Care for Stranded Migrants, The New York Times,
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