( 您好!臺灣時間:2023/12/10 05:10
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


研究生(外文):Heinemann, Yannick Leo
論文名稱(外文):The Rohingya Crisis – Perspectives of Key Actors in the Burmese Society
指導教授(外文):Sun, Tsai-Wei
口試委員(外文):Lu, Yeh-ChungChao, Chung-Chi
外文關鍵詞:RohingyaBurmaEthnic conflictSymbolic politicsDemocratisation
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:198
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:29
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
Discrimination of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar as has been an issue for decades. Contrary to the hopes, the country’s democratic transition did not commence a comprehensive ethnic reconciliation. On the contrary, it laid the foundation for a large-scale campaign of purposeful displacement of Rohingya in 2017. This thesis focuses on the framework of symbolic politics to assess the underlying drivers of Rohingya repressions since the country’s democratic transition. It assumes that goal –driven elites exploit ethnic cleavages in their favour. Under references to a myth-symbol complex, they deepen ethnic aversions to a point where a presumably hostile “other” has to be fended off for the sake of the prevalence of the in-group. Democratisation facilitates this process, as it creates an environment for unregulated competition, where actors expect benefits from ethnic outbidding. Based on public expressions made by key societal and political actors in Myanmar after the country’s democratisation, this thesis shows that indeed elites are responsible for creating an anti-Muslim narrative. Brought up by religious actors in Rakhine State and impelled by local ethno nationalist parties, this narrative increasingly defined the image of Muslims as a threat to Myanmar. As the central government under USDP rule first allied with chauvinist forces, and under the NLD turned a blind eye, the depiction of Rohingya transformed from “illegal immigrants” to a “terrorist threat”. Accordingly, measures to repress Muslims got more severe and eventually Rohingya were expelled without significant popular opposition. Thus, a direct connection between actors advancing Islamophobia and actual acts of ethnic violence can be infered
Chapter I: INTRODUCTION - 1 -
1.1 Brief history of Myanmar prior to the democratisation - 2 -
1.2 Research questions - 6 -
1.3 Theoretical framework - 8 -
1.4 Research methods - 10 -
2.1 Ethnicity as a driver of conflict - 16 -
2.1.1 Historical Explanations - 17 -
2.1.2 Opportunity models - 20 -
2.1.3 Motives and motivation - 24 -
2.1.4 The constructivist approach to ethnicity in conflicts - 27 -
2.1.5 Symbolic Politics a symbiosis - 30 -
2.2 Research on Rohingya discrimination in Myanmar - 31 -
2.2.1 Rohingya Identity and Claims to Rakhine Nativity - 31 -
2.2.2 Rohingya discrimination - 33 -
2.2.3 Discrimination in the context of the democratisation process - 35 -
2.2.4 Anti-Muslim sentiments - 36 -
2.3 Major events of violence involving Rohingya since the democratic transition
- 43 -
3.1 The Tatmadaw - 48 -
3.1.1 Contemporary self-conception - 48 -
3.1.2 Economic interests - 49 -
3.1.3 Cooperation with foreign countries and armed forces - 51 -
3.1.4 Ethnic reconciliation - 52 -
3.1.5 Justifying actor selection - 53 -
3.2 Thein Sein and the USDP - 53 -
3.2.1 Economic Reform - 54 -
3.2.2 Foreign affairs - 55 -
3.2.3 Strategy for ethnic reconciliation - 55 -
3.2.4 Stance towards constitutional change - 56 -
3.2.5 Justifying actor selection - 57 -
3.3 Aung San Suu Kyi and the NLD - 57 -
3.3.1 Economic reforms - 58 -
3.3.2 Foreign relations - 59 -
3.3.3 Strategy for ethnic reconciliation - 60 -
3.3.4 Stance on constitutional change - 61 -
3.3.5 Suu Kyi’s political philosophy - 62 -
3.3.6 Suu Kyi’s leadership style - 62 -
3.3.7 Challenges to Suu Kyi and the NLD - 63 -
3.3.8 Justifying actor selection - 66 -
3.4 Rakhine Parties - 67 -
3.4.1 Background to Rakhine State - 67 -
3.4.2 ANP and RNDP - 69 -
3.4.3 Stance towards ethnic reconciliation - 70 -
3.4.4 Linkage with the local population - 70 -
3.4.5 Affiliation with militant groups - 72 -
3.4.6 Opinion on other Muslims - 72 -
3.4.7 Justifying actor selection - 73 -
3.5 The Buddhist clergy and Wirathu - 74 -
3.5.1 Buddhism and the state - 74 -
3.5.2 Previous religious involvement in politics - 75 -
3.5.3 Status of the clergy in contemporary Myanmar - 76 -
3.5.4 Justifying actor selection - 77 -
3.6 Concluding remarks - 78 -
4.1. The Thein Sein/USDP government - 79 -
4.1.1 Thein Sein’s inauguration – a promising start? - 80 -
4.1.2 Post 2012 election – giving in to popular demands - 81 -
4.2 The Tatmadaw - 89 -
4.2.1 Strategy concerning Rohingya - 89 -
4.2.2 Attitude towards Rohingya - 92 -
4.3 Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy - 99 -
4.3.1 Suu Kyi in the opposition - 99 -
4.3.2 Statements around the 2012 by-election - 100 -
4.3.3 Suu Kyi as a member of parliament - 102 -
4.3.4 Suu Kyi and NLD as ruling party - 102 -
4.3.5 Hiding behind alibi commissions - 103 -
4.3.6 Build-up and reaction to the 2017 violence - 106 -
4.4. Summary - 112 -
4.5 Comparison - 115 -
5.1 Rakhine parties - 120 -
5.1.1 The parties’ early attitude - 121 -
5.1.2 Successful linkage between 2012 and 2014 – identifying Rohingya as a threat - 122 -
5.1.3 The parties’ attack on Rohingya past 2012 - 124 -
5.1.4 Reactions to the 2017 violence - 127 -
5.1.5 Run up for the 2018 by-election - 129 -
5.1.6 Ties to the Tatmadaw - 130 -
5.1.7 Successful lobbying - 131 -
5.2 The Buddhist clergy - 134 -
5.2.1 Emergence of the 969 Movement and Ma Ba Tha - 135 -
5.2.2 Good relations of Ma Ba Tha and USDP? - 137 -
5.2.3 Methods of spreading their narrative - 139 -
5.2.4 Wirathu’s and other monks’ narrative - 142 -
5.2.5 Evolution of the anti-Muslim narrative and respective demands - 146 -
5.2.6 Why engage in politics? - 148 -
5.2.7 Lobbying efforts - 150 -
5.3 Summary - 153 -
5.4 Comparison - 155 -
Chapter VI: CONCLUSION - 159 -
Bibiliography - 170 -

"66(D): No Real Change: An Analysis of Complaints Made before and after the 2017 Legal Amendment." Free Expression Myanmar, 2017.
"The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census." In Census Atlas Myanmar: Department of Population; Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population, 2014.
Abuza, Zachary. "Myanmar’s Tatmadaw and the Making of the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army ". Terrorism Monitor, no. 10 (2017): 7-12.
Al Hussein, Zeid Ra'ad. "Darker and More Dangerous: High Commissioner Updates the Human Rights Council on Human Rights Issues in 40 Countries." United Nations Human Rights Office Of The High Commissioner, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=22041&LangID=E. (accessed August 27, 2018).
Allchin, Joseph. "The Rohingya, Myths and Misinformation." Democratic Voice of Burma, http://www.dvb.no/analysis/the-rohingya-myths-and-misinformation/22597. (accessed October 26, 2018).
———. "Taste of Democracy Sends Burma's Fragile Economy into Freefall." Independent Print Limited, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/taste-of-democracy-sends-burmas-fragile-economy-into-freefall-2357511.html. (accessed January 14, 2019).
Amnesty International. "Myanmar: Aung San Suu Kyi “Burying Her Head in the Sand” About Rakhine Horrors." Amnesty International, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/09/myanmar-aung-san-suu-kyi-burying-her-head-in-the-sand-about-rakhine-horrors/. (accessed August 27, 2018).
———. "Myanmar: Military Land Grab as Security Forces Build Bases on Torched Rohingya Villages " Amnesty International, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2018/03/myanmar-military-land-grab-as-security-forces-build-bases-on-torched-rohingya-villages/. (accessed October 16, 2018).
———. "Myanmar: Scorched-Earth Campaign Fuels Ethnic Cleansing of Rohingya from Rakhine State." Amnesty International, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/09/myanmar-scorched-earth-campaign-fuels-ethnic-cleansing-of-rohingya-from-rakhine-state/. (accessed May 23, 2018).
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso London, 2004.
"Anp Vice Chair Delivers Address at 21st Century Panglong 3rd Session." The Global New Light of Myanmar, 07.12 2018, 6,14.
Article 19. "Myanmar: Interfaith Harmonious Coexistence Bill (3rd Version)." In Legal Analysis. London: Article 19, 2017.
Asean Statistical Yearbook 2018. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat, 2018.
Asia News. "Burmese Buddhists against Qatar Mobile Phone Company: "Boycott Muslims"." AsiaNews.it, http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Burmese-Buddhists-against-Qatar-mobile-phone-company:-Boycott-Muslims-31271.html. (accessed November 3, 2018).
"Assessment of Media Development in Myanmar: Based on Unesco's Media Development Indicators." In The International Programme for the Development of Communication. Bangkok: UNESCO Office Bangkok and Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific; International Media Support (Denmark), 2016.
Aung, San Yamin. "Seven Charged with Illegal Assembly after Us Embassy Protest." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/seven-charged-with-illegal-assembly-after-us-embassy-protest.html. (accessed November 11, 2018).
Bächthold, Stefan. "An Eclipse of Myanmar's Civil Society?" Heinrich Böll Stiftung, https://www.boell.de/en/2017/07/05/eclipse-myanmars-civil-society. (accessed January 28, 2019).
"Bangladesh and Burma: The Rohingya Crisis." House of Commons, International Development Committee, 2018.
Barany, Zoltan. "Burma: Suu Kyi's Missteps." Journal of Democracy 29, no. 1 (2018): 5-19.
Barron, Laignee. "Nationalist Monk Known as the 'Burmese Bin Laden' Has Been Stopped from Spreading Hate on Facebook." Time Magazine, http://time.com/5178790/facebook-removes-wirathu/. (accessed November 3, 2018).
BBC News. "Burma's Suu Kyi Urges Minority Rights." BBC, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-18979410. (accessed August 22, 2018).
———. "Myanmar: Aung San Suu Kyi Exclusive Interview." BBC News, 2017.
Beissinger, Mark R. "A New Look at Ethnicity and Democratization." Journal of Democracy 19, no. 3 (2008): 85-97.
Belford, Aubrey. "As Myanmar's Rakhine Buddhists Gain Strength, So Does Anti-Muslim Apartheid." Reuters. (accessed February 22, 2019).
"Beyond Panglong: Myanmar's National Peace and Reform Dilemma." In Myanmar Policy Briefing. Amsterdam: The Transnational Institute, 2017.
Birsel, Robert. "Al Qaeda Warns Myanmar of 'Punishment' over Rohingya." Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-rohingya-alqaeda/al-qaeda-warns-myanmar-of-punishment-over-rohingya-idUSKCN1BO0NI. (accessed November 16, 2018).
Blanton, Robert, T David Mason, and Brian Athow. "Colonial Style and Post-Colonial Ethnic Conflict in Africa." Journal of Peace Research 38, no. 4 (2001): 473-91.
"Briefing by Security Council Mission to Bangladesh and Myanmar." New York: United Nations Security Council, 2018.
"Buddhism and State Power in Myanmar." In Asia Report No. 290, edited by International Crisis Group (ICG). Brussels: International Crisis Group (ICG), 2017.
Buncombe, Andrew. "With 'Rohingya' Not an Option on Census Forms, Burma's New Democracy Is Facing an Identity Crisis." The Independent https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/with-rohingya-not-an-option-on-census-forms-burma-s-new-democracy-is-facing-an-identity-crisis-9232505.html. (accessed November 11, 2018).
Bünte, Marco. "Perilous Presidentialism or Precarious Power-Sharing? Hybrid Regime Dynamics in Myanmar." Contemporary Politics 24, no. 3 (2018): 346-60.
Burke, Adam. "New Political Space, Old Tensions: History, Identity and Violence in Rakhine State, Myanmar." Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 38, no. 2 (2016): 258-83.
"Burma 2015 Human Rights Report." In Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015, edited by Human Rights and Labor Bureau of Democracy: United States Department of State, 2015.
"Burma: 1983 Population Census." Yangon: Immigration and Manpower Department Census Division, 1986.
"Caf World Giving Index 2017." London: Charities Aid Foundation, 2016.
"Caged without a Roof. Apartheid in Myanmar's Rakhine State." London: Amnesty International, 2017.
Cameroon Intelligence Report. "Kofi Annan on a Fact-Finding Mission in Myanmar." http://www.cameroonintelligencereport.com/kofi-annan-on-a-fact-finding-mission-in-myanmar/. (accessed August 25, 2018).
Carroll, Joshua. "Myanmar’s Brutal Military Is Convicting Its Own Soldiers of Atrocities." Foreign Policy, https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/06/27/myanmars-brutal-military-is-convicting-its-own-soldiers-of-war-crimes/. (accessed December 22, 2018).
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Simon Hug, and Lutz F Krebs. "Democratization and Civil War: Empirical Evidence." Journal of Peace Research 47, no. 4 (2010): 377-94.
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Nils B Weidmann, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. "Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnonationalist Civil War: A Global Comparison." American Political Science Review 105, no. 3 (2011): 478-95.
Center For Diversity and National Harmony. "Rakhine State Needs Assessment." Yangon: Center For Diversity and National Harmony, 2015.
Chan, Aye. "The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)." SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 3, no. 2 (2005): 396-420.
Cheesman, Nick. "How in Myanmar “National Races” Came to Surpass Citizenship and Exclude Rohingya." Journal of Contemporary Asia 47, no. 3 (2017a): 461-83.
———. "Introduction: Interpreting Communal Violence in Myanmar." Journal of Contemporary Asia 47, no. 3 (2017b): 335-52.
Chern, Kang Wan, and Htin Lynn Aung. "Daw Suu Pitches Myanmar to Asean, Vows to Improve Business Environment." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/news/daw-suu-pitches-myanmar-asean-vows-improve-business-environment.html. (accessed January 27, 2019).
Clapp, Priscilla A. Securing a Democratic Future for Myanmar. Council on Foreign Relations Press, 2016.
Coclanis, Perter A. "Aung San Suu Kyi Is a Politician, Not a Monster." Foreign Policy, https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/05/14/aung-san-suu-kyi-is-a-politician-not-a-monster/. (accessed June 26, 2018).
———. "Terror in Burma: Buddhists Vs. Muslims." World Affairs Institute, http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/article/terror-burma-buddhists-vs-muslims. (accessed October 19, 2018).
Collier, Paul, and Anke Hoeffler. "Greed and Grievance in Civil War." Oxford economic papers 56, no. 4 (2004): 563-95.
Collier, Paul, Anke Hoeffler, and Dominic Rohner. "Beyond Greed and Grievance: Feasibility and Civil War." oxford Economic papers 61, no. 1 (2009): 1-27.
"Conflict Analysis." Chap. 2 In Conflict-Sensitive Approaches to Development, Humanitarian Assistance and Peace Building: Tools for Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment, edited by Colin Roth. London, 2004.
"Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar." Yangon: Ministry of Information, 2008.
Crouch, Melissa. "Democracy and Peace Frustrated in Myanmar: Remembering U Ko Ni." Lowy Institute (The Interpreter), https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/democracy-and-peace-frustrated-myanmar-remembering-u-ko-ni. (accessed August 25, 2018).
———. "The Twisted Politics of Terrorism in Myanmar." Lowy Institute, https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/threat-terrorism-too-convenient-myanma. (accessed August 25, 2018).
"The Dark Side of Transition: Violence against Muslims in Myanmar." In Asia Report. Yangon/Jakarta/Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2013.
Domínguez, Gabriel. "Hrw Slams Myanmar's Rohingya Plan as a 'Blueprint for Segregation'." Deutsche Welle, https://www.dw.com/en/hrw-slams-myanmars-rohingya-plan-as-a-blueprint-for-segregation/a-17972391. (accessed July 24, 2018).
East-West Center. "Aung San Suu Kyi." vimeo.com, 2013.
Egreteau, Renaud. "The Continuing Political Salience of the Military in Post-Spdc Myanmar." Debating democratization in Myanmar 233 (2014): 259.
———. "Military Guardianship and the Search for a Pacted Transition." In Caretaking Democratization: The Military and Political Change in Myanmar, 19-39. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.
———. "Patterns of Persistent Praetorian Behaviour." In Caretaking Democratization: The Military and Political Change in Myanmar, 81-99. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.
Eleven Media Group. "Myanmar (Burma) - Exclusive Interview with the Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services Min Aung Hlaing." Asia News Monitor, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1657330747?accountid=10067. . (accessed March 3, 2019).
———. "Rnp Issues Statement on Use of 'Muslim Community in Rakhine State'." Eleven Media Group, http://www.elevenmyanmar.com/local/5225. (accessed September 16, 2018).
Emmers, Ralf. "Securitization." Chap. 10 In Contemporary Security Studies, edited by Alan Collins, 131-46. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
"Eu-Myanmar Relations." In Factsheets. Bruxelles: European External Action Service, 2018.
"Examples of Anti-Muslim Propaganda." In Burma Briefing. London: Burma Campaign UK for Human Rights, Democracy & Development in Burma, 2013.
Facebook. "Removing Myanmar Military Officials from Facebook." Facebook, https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2018/08/removing-myanmar-officials/. (accessed November 3, 2018).
Fearon, James D, and David D Laitin. "Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War." American political science review 97, no. 1 (2003): 75-90.
———. "Violence and the Social Construction of Ethnic Identity." International organization 54, no. 4 (2000): 845-77.
Ferrie, Jared, and Min Zayar Oo. "Myanmar Buddhist Committee Bans Anti-Muslim Organisations." Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-buddhism/myanmar-buddhist-committee-bans-anti-muslim-organizations-idUSBRE98A0EP20130911. (accessed November 6, 2018).
"Final Report of Inquiry Commission on Sectarian Violence in Rakhine State." edited by Myo Myint: Republic of the Union of Myanmar, 2013.
Fink, Christina. "Myanmar in 2017: Insecurity and Violence." Asian Survey 58, no. 1 (2018): 158-65.
Finnbogason, Daniel, and Isak Svensson. "The Missing Jihad. Why Have There Been No Jihadist Civil Wars in Southeast Asia?". The Pacific Review 31, no. 1 (2018/01/02 2018): 96-115.
Finney, Richard. "'Bengalis' Not Native to Myanmar, Country’s Military Chief Says." Radio Free Asia, https://www.rfa.org/english/news/myanmar/bengalis-10122017191055.html/. (accessed February 24, 2019).
Fisher, Jonah. "Bbc News Channel "Our World" Myanmar's Extremist Monk." Youtube, 2013.
"Foreign Minister Kono Visits Myanmar." news release., 8.6., 2018.
Fortify Rights. "Myanmar: Implement Recommendations of Kofi Annan-Led Commission." Reliefweb.int, https://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/myanmar-implement-recommendations-kofi-annan-led-commission. (accessed August 25, 2018).
Freeman, Joe. "Can Anyone Stop Burma's Hardline Buddhist Monks." The Atlantic, https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/09/can-anyone-stop-burmas-hardline-buddhist-monks/538992/. (accessed December 12, 2018).
Frydenlund, Iselin. "The Birth of Buddhist Politics of Religious Freedom in Myanmar." Journal of Religious and Political Practice 4, no. 1 (2018): 107-21.
———. "Religious Liberty for Whom? The Buddhist Politics of Religious Freedom During Myanmar's Transition to Democracy." Nordic Journal of Human Rights 35, no. 1 (2017/01/02 2017): 55-73.
Fuller, Paul. "The Act of Giving: What Makes Myanmar So Charitable?" The Myanmar times, https://www.mmtimes.com/lifestyle/16317-the-act-of-giving-what-makes-myanmar-so-charitable.html. (accessed February 9, 2019).
Fuller, Thomas. "Extremism Rises among Myanmar Buddhists." The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/21/world/asia/extremism-rises-among-myanmar-buddhists-wary-of-muslim-minority.html?hp&pagewanted=all. (accessed September 19, 2018.).
Galache, Carlos Sardiña. "Rohingya and National Identities in Burma." Australian National University, http://www.newmandala.org/the-rohingya-and-national-identities-in-burma/. (accessed April 1, 2018).
———. "Who Are the Monks Behind Burma's 969 Campaign?" Democratic Voice of Burma, http://www.dvb.no/news/features-news/the-monks-behind-burma%E2%80%99s-%E2%80%9C969%E2%80%9Dmovement-2/28079. (accessed October 17, 2018).
Ganesan, N. "Democratization and Its Implications for the Resolution of Ethnic Conflict in Myanmar." The Institute for Peace and Unification Studies, Seoul National University, 2017.
Gearan, Anne. "Burma’s Thein Sein Says Military ‘Will Always Have a Special Place’ in Government." The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/burmas-thein-sein-says-military-will-always-have-a-special-place-in-government/2013/05/19/253c300e-c0d4-11e2-8bd8-2788030e6b44_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.3651a3415e2a. (accessed October 11, 2018).
Gil, Sylwia. "The Role of Monkhood in Contemporary Myanmar Society." Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2008.
"The Global Competitiveness Report." edited by Klaus Schwab. Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2015.
"Global Terrorism Index 2018: Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism." Sydney, 2018.
Harris, Ian. "Introduction to Buddhism and the Political Process: Patterns of Interactions." Chap. 1 In Buddhism and the Political Process, edited by Hiroko Kawanami, 1 - 11. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016.
"Hidden Hands Behind Communal Violence in Myanmar: Case Study of the Mandalay Riots." In Justice Trust Policy Report. New York: Justice Trust, 2015.
Hill, Cameron. "Defence Cooperation with Myanmar - Australia and Other Countries: A Quick Guide." In Research Paper Series, 2017-18. Canberra: Parliamentary Library, Commonwealth of Australia, 2017.
Hindstrom, Hanna. "Burma President Backs Anti-Muslim 'Hate Preacher' Wirathu." Democratic Voice of Burma, http://www.dvb.no/news/politics-news/burma-president-backs-anti-muslim-%E2%80%98hate-preacher%E2%80%99-wirathu/28955. (accessed October 23, 2018).
———. "Nld Blocked Muslim Candidates to Appease Ma Ba Tha: Party Member." The Irrawaddy, http://www.irrawaddy.com/election/news/nld-blocked-muslim-candidates-to-appease-ma-ba-tha-party-member. (accessed August 24, 2018).
———. "Suu Kyi: "We Need Precise Laws on Citizenship"." Democratic Voice of Burma, http://www.dvb.no/news/suu-kyi-%E2%80%9Cwe-need-precise-laws-on-citizenship%E2%80%9D/22447. (accessed August 18, 2018).
Hintha. "(English) Aung San Suu Kyi's 2012 Campaign Tv Speech W/ English Subtitles." youtube.com, 2012.
Hlaing, Min Aung. "All People Should Bear in Mind “Myanmar Spirit” without Racial and Religious Discrimination, and to Strive for the Country’s Development in Cohesive Union (Speech Delivered at the Annual Armed Forces Day)." https://www.facebook.com/seniorgeneralminaunghlaing/posts/1922289607805518. (accessed May 23, 2018).
———. "Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services Senior General Maha Thray Sithu Min Aung Hlaing Delivers Speech at Parade of 72nd Anniversary Armed Forces Day for 2017." https://www.facebook.com/seniorgeneralminaunghlaing/posts/1525338914167258. (accessed May 23, 2018).
———. "Duties and Actions Must Be in Line with the Law." https://www.facebook.com/seniorgeneralminaunghlaing/posts/1711630188871462. (accessed July 24, 2018).
———. "Entire Government Institutions and People Must Defend the Country with Strong Patriotism." https://www.facebook.com/seniorgeneralminaunghlaing/posts/1698274643540350. (accessed July 24, 2018).
Hlaing, Min Aung "Senior General Maha Thray Sithu Min Aung Hlaing Addresses 71st Anniversary Armed Forces Day Parade." https://www.facebook.com/seniorgeneralminaunghlaing/posts/1188089224558897. (accessed May 23, 2018).
Holliday, I. Burma Redux: Global Justice and the Quest for Political Reform in Myanmar. Columbia University Press, 2012.
Holliday, Ian. "Voting and Violence in Myanmar: Nation Building for a Transition to Democracy." In Burma or Myanmar? The Struggle for National Identity, 23-49: World Scientific, 2010.
Holmes, Oliver. "Fact Check: Aung San Suu Kyi's Speech on the Rohingya Crisis " The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/20/fact-check-aung-san-suu-kyi-rohingya-crisis-speech-myanmar. (accessed August 27, 2018).
Hookway, James. "Buddhist Leader Spreads Hatred of Muslims in Myanmar." Dow Jones Institutional News, 10/12/
2017 Oct 12 2017.
Htun, Htun. "Yearlong Preaching Ban on Firebrand Monk Almost Up." The Irrawaddy https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/yearlong-preaching-ban-firebrand-monk-almost.html. (accessed October 10, 2018).
"Human Rights Situation That Require the Council's Attention." Geneva: United Nations Human Rights Council, 2013.
Human Rights Watch. "Burma: Government Plan Would Segregate Rohingya - Forced Resettlement, Discriminatory Citizenship Creates Dangers." Human Rights Watch, https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/10/03/burma-government-plan-would-segregate-rohingya. (accessed July 24, 2018).
———. "Burma: Growing Political Prisoner Population." Human Rights Watch, https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/01/17/burma-growing-political-prisoner-population. (accessed October 29, 2018).
———. "Burma: National Commission Denies Atrocities." Human Rights Watch, https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/08/07/burma-national-commission-denies-atrocities. (accessed August 24, 2018).
———. "Burma: Security Forces Raped Rohingya Women, Girls." Human Rights Watch, https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/02/06/burma-security-forces-raped-rohingya-women-girls. (accessed August 25, 2018).
Hunecke, Thomas. "Mission Report of Ohchr Rapid Response Mission to Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh." Geneva: United Nations Human Rights Office Of The High Commisioner, 2017.
Hunt, Katie. "Rohingya Crisis: 'It's Not Genocide,' Say Myanmar's Hardline Monks " Cable News Network (CNN), https://edition.cnn.com/2017/11/25/asia/myanmar-buddhist-nationalism-mabatha/index.html. (accessed January 2, 2019).
Hunt, Luke. "The Trouble with Myanmar and Rohingya Repatriation." The Diplomat, 2018 Apr 20 2018.
Hussain, Naveeda. "Federalism, Freedom and Fear-Mongering: Democratization and Violent Conflict in
Rakhine State, Myanmar." The Kiessling Papers, no. December 2017 (2017).
Ibrahim, Azeem. The Rohingyas: Inside Myanmar's Hidden Genocide. Oxford University Press, 2016.
"Intra- and Extra-Asean Trade, 2015." edited by ASEAN Statistics: Association od Southeast Asian Nations, 2016.
"Intra-Asean Trade, 2010-2013." Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 2013.
Jolliffe, Kim. "Ethnic Armed Conflic and Territorial Administration in Myanmar." edited by The Asian Foundation. Yangon, Myanmar: The Asia Foundation, 2015.
Kaplan, Sarah. "The Serene-Looking Buddhist Monk Accused of Inciting Burma’s Sectarian Violence." The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2015/05/27/the-burmese-bin-laden-fueling-the-rohingya-migrant-crisis-in-southeast-asia/?utm_term=.f872db60c9be. (accessed October 20, 2018).
Kaufman, Stuart J. "Ethnicity as a Generator of Conflict." Routledge handbook of ethnic conflict 91 (2010).
———. "Symbolic Politics or Rational Choice? Testing Theories of Extreme Ethnic Violence." International Security 30, no. 4 (2006): 45-86.
Keane, Feargal. "The Burmese Monks Who Preach Intolerance against Muslim Rohingyas." BBC News, 2012.
Kempel, Susanne, Chan Myawe Aung Sun, and Aung Tun. "Myanmar Political Parties at a Time of Transition." Yangon: Pyoe Pin Programme, 2015.
Khine, Tin Aung. "Myanmar’s Religion Ministry Must ‘Take Responsibility’ for Rabble-Rousing Monks: Interview." Radio Free Asia, https://www.rfa.org/english/news/myanmar/myanmars-religion-ministry-must-take-responsibility-for-rabble-rousing-monks-interview-02282018160726.html. (accessed November 1, 2018).
Kinseth, Ashley S. "Genocide in the Modern Era: Social Nedia and the Proliferation of Hate Speech in Myanmar." Tea Circle Oxford, https://teacircleoxford.com/2018/05/10/genocide-in-the-modern-era-social-media-and-the-proliferation-of-hate-speech-in-myanmar/. (accessed November 6, 2018).
Kono, Taro. "Establishment of an Independent Commission of Enquiry by the Myanmar Government and the Agreement on the Memorandum of Understanding (Mou) between Myanmar Government and the Un Agencies Concerning Their Activities in Northern Rakhine State." news release, 2018, https://www.mofa.go.jp/press/release/press1e_000070.html.
Kramer, Tom. "Ethnic Conflict and Lands Rights in Myanmar." Social Research: An International Quarterly 82, no. 2 (2015): 355-74.
Kudo, Toshihiro. "One Year of Myanmar’s Thein Sein Government: Background and Outlook of Reforms." Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies - Japan External Trade Organization, 2012.
Kumbun, Joe. "The Blossoming Relationship between India and Myanmar." Frontier Myanmar, https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/the-blossoming-relationship-between-india-and-myanmar. (accessed February 12, 2019).
Kyaw, Aye Thidar, and Clare Hammond. "Government Reveals 12-Point Economic Policy." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/business/21664-nld-12-point-economic-policy-announcement.html. (accessed January 20, 2019).
Kyaw, Kyaw. "Analysis of Myanmar’s Nld Landslide " New Mandala, http://www.newmandala.org/analysis-of-myanmars-nld-landslide/. (accessed August 14, 2018).
Kyaw, Nyi Nyi. "Islamophobia in Buddhist Myanmar: The 969 Movement and Anti-Muslim Violence." Islam and the State in Myanmar: Muslim-Buddhist relations and the politics of belonging (2016): 183-210.
———. "Myanmar’s Other Muslims: The Case of the Kaman." In Citizenship in Myanmar: Ways of Being in and from Burma, edited by Ashley South and Marie Lall, 279-99. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2018.
Kyaw, Ting Aung, Van Patrick King, Pailin Wedel, and Htoo Tay Zar. "The Monk Preaching Myanmar's Buddhist Nationalism Mandalay, Myanmar." edited by Open Hands Initiative Global Post: PoliticallyRude, 2013.
Landé, Carl H. "Ethnic Conflict, Ethnic Accommodation, and Nation-Building in Southeast Asia." Studies in Comparative International Development 33, no. 4 (December 01 1999): 89-117.
Latt, Sai. "Bbc under Fire on Rohingyas " newmandala.org, http://www.newmandala.org/bbc-under-fire-on-rohingyas/. (accessed January 19, 2018).
Latt, Win Ko Ko, and Min Thein Aung. "Myanmar’s Rakhine Lawmakers Want More ‘Ethnic Villages’ in Muslim-Majority Areas." Radio Free Asia, https://www.rfa.org/english/news/myanmar/myanmars-rakhine-lawmakers-want-more-ethnic-villages-in-muslim-majority-areas-06052017163718.html. (accessed October 12, 2018).
Leider, Jacques P. "'The Frictions in the Rakhine State Are Less About Islamophobia Than Rohingya-Phobia'." By Sangeeta Barooah Pisharoty (2017).
———. "Rohingya: The Name, the Movement, the Quest for Identity." Nation Building in Myanmar 255 (2014).
Lim, Merlyna. "Freedom to Hate: Social Media, Algorithmic Enclaves, and the Rise of Tribal Nationalism in Indonesia." Critical Asian Studies 49, no. 3 (2017): 411-27.
Linn, Zin. "Burma Army’s Boss Calls for Stronger Armed Forces." Asian Correspondent https://asiancorrespondent.com/2013/03/burma-armys-boss-calls-for-stronger-and-modernized-armed-forces/#ACmfEaBVV4mtqSaK.97. (accessed May 23, 2018).
Lintner, Bertil. "The Military's Still in Charge: Why Reform in Burma Is Only Skin-Deep." Foreign Policy, https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/07/09/the-militarys-still-in-charge/. (accessed July 23, 2018).
———. "Myanmar (Burma): Militancy in Arakan State." Asia News Monitor, 12/19/
2016 Dec 19 2016.
Lone, Wa. "Myanmar Sends Hundreds of Troops to Rakhine as Tension Rises: Sources." Reuters. (accessed October 13, 2018.).
———. "Rakhine Civil Society Forms Groups to Monitor Ingo Activities." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/national-news/10513-rakhine-civil-society-forms-groups-to-monitor-ingo-activities.html. (accessed February 26, 2019).
———. "Usdp Candidate Donates Big to Ma Ba Tha." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/national-news/16287-usdp-candidate-donates-big-to-ma-ba-tha.html. (accessed November 10, 2018).
Lone, Wa, and Andrew R.C. Marschall. "Buddhist Mistrust of Foreign Aid Workers Hampers Relief for Myanmar's Rohingya." Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-rohingya-aid/buddhist-mistrust-of-foreign-aid-workers-hampers-relief-for-myanmars-rohingya-idUSKCN1BY0BZ. (accessed February 11, 2019).
Long, Kayleigh. "In Sittwe, an Independent Candidate in Name Only Tells of a Split within His Party." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/national-news/17332-in-sittwe-an-independent-candidate-in-name-only-tells-of-a-split-within-his-party.html. (accessed October 14, 2018).
Lynn, Nyan Hlaing. "Rakhine Political Leader Dr Aye Maung Arrested in Sittwe after Mrauk U Violence." Frontier Myanmar, https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/rakhine-political-leader-dr-aye-maung-arrested-in-sittwe-after-mrauk-u-violence. (accessed November 22, 2018).
———. "Tensions Ahead over 'Race and Religion' Laws." Frontier Myanmar, https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/tensions-ahead-over-changes-to-race-and-religion-laws. (accessed September 2, 2018).
M-Media. "Fanatical Buddhist Monk Saydaw Wirathu Calling for Boycott of Myanmar Muslims [Video]." Youtube.com, 2013.
MacGregor, Fiona, and Thu Thu Aung. "New Govt to Defend 'Race and Religion' Laws at Un Meeting." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/national-news/21218-new-govt-to-defend-race-and-religion-laws-at-un-meeting.html. (accessed August 31, 2018).
MacManus, Thomas, Penny Green, and Alicia de la Cour Venning. Countdown to Annihilation: Genocide in Myanmar. International State Crime Initiative, 2015.
Mahoney, James. "The Logic of Process Tracing Tests in the Social Sciences." Sociological Methods & Research 41, no. 4 (2012): 570-97.
Manch, Thomas. "For Muslims across Myanmar, Citizenship Rights a Legal Fiction." Frontier Myanmar, https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/for-muslims-across-myanmar-citizenship-rights-a-legal-fiction. (accessed October 11, 2018).
Mann, Michael. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Mansfield, Edward D, and Jack Snyder. "Democratic Transitions, Institutional Strength, and War." International Organization 56, no. 2 (2002): 297-337.
Marshall, Andrew R.C. "Myanmar’s Official Embrace of Extreme Buddhism." In Reuters Special Report, edited by Bill Tarrant and Michael Williams: Reuters, 2013.
———. "Special Report: Myanmar Gives Official Blessing to Anti-Muslim Monks." Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-969-specialreport/special-report-myanmar-gives-official-blessing-to-anti-muslim-monks-idUSBRE95Q04720130627. (accessed July 25, 2018).
Martin, Michael F. "Burma's 2010 Elections: Implications of the
New Constitution and Election Laws " In CSR Reports for Congress. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2010.
Mathieson, David Scott. "The Electoral Aftermath in Rakhine State." Human Rights Watch, https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/01/06/electoral-aftermath-rakhine-state-0. (accessed December 8, 2018).
———. "Shadowy Rebels Extend Myanmar’s Wars." Asia Times, http://www.atimes.com/article/shadowy-rebels-extend-myanmars-wars/. (accessed February 2, 2019).
Matsui, Motokazu. "Myanmar's Foreign Direct Investment Rush Recedes." The Financial Times, https://www.ft.com/content/f7bda5bc-e150-11e6-8405-9e5580d6e5fb. (accessed September 5, 2018.).
Maung, Aye. "Arakan National Party Presents Policy and Programmes." Global New Light of Myanmar, http://www.globalnewlightofmyanmar.com/arakan-national-party-presents-policy-and-programmes/. (accessed December 29, 2018).
———. "Interview with Dr. Aye Maung on the Rakhine State Issue." By Hsan Moe Tun (2017).
Maw, Aka Kyaw Min. "Stability and Expectations: Economic Reform and the Nld Government." Southeast Asian Affairs (2018): 221-42.
McCarthy, Stephen. "The Buddhist Political Rhetoric of Aung San Suu Kyi." Contemporary Buddhism 5, no. 2 (2004): 67-81.
———. "Burma and Asean: A Marriage of Inconvenience ". Chap. 12 In Burma or Myanmar? The Struggle for National Identity, edited by Lowell Dittmer, 327 - 62. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 2010.
Mclaughlin, Timothy. "Rising Rakhine Party Looming Threat to Myanmar's Muslim Minority." Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-election-rohingya/rising-rakhine-party-looming-threat-to-myanmars-muslim-minority-idUSKCN0RV5RO20151001. (accessed October 9, 2018.).
McPherson, Poppy. "Aung San Suu Kyi: Myanmar's Great Hope Fails to Live up to Expectations " The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/31/aung-san-suu-kyi-myanmars-great-hope-fails-to-live-up-to-expectations. (accessed January 27, 2019).
Miles, Tom. "U.N. Investigators Cite Facebook Role in Myanmar Crisis." Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-iran-sanctions-anger/facing-new-sanctions-iranians-vent-anger-at-rich-and-powerful-idUSKCN1NC0J5. (accessed November 2, 2018).
Min, Aung Khiang, and Joses Kuan. "Human Rights Commission Comes under Fire over Record." Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/opinion/18786-human-rights-commission-comes-under-fire-over-record.html. (accessed July 24, 2018).
Min, Swe. "Special Report - with Official Help, Myanmar’s Radical Buddhists Target Muslim-Owned Businesses." Myanmar Now, http://www.myanmar-now.org/news/i/?id=9ba61afc-285d-49bd-8f73-8b9efaf941c0. (accessed October 26, 2018).
Moe, Moe. "Ma Ba Tha Changes Name, Still Officially Illegal." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/ma-ba-tha-changes-name-still-officially-illegal.html. (accessed October 22, 2018).
Mon, Su Myat. "The Kaman: Citizens Who Suffer." Frontier Myanmar, https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/the-kaman-citizens-who-suffer. (accessed February 2, 209).
———. "Push for Citizenship Verification Brings Contentious Law into Focus." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/push-for-citizenship-verification-brings-contentious-law-into-focus.html. (accessed October 10, 2018).
Mon, Ye. "Nationalist Party Opposes Official Term for Muslim Community in Rakhine." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/national-news/20997-nationalist-party-opposes-official-term-for-muslim-community-in-rakhine.html. (accessed February 22, 2019).
"'My World Is Finished' - Rohingya Targeted in Crimes against Humanity in Myanmar." London: Amnesty International, 2017.
"Myanmar's Military: Back to the Barracks." In Asia Briefing, edited by International Crisis Group. Yangon/Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2014.
"Myanmar's Rakhine Advisory Commission Meets with Top Leaders, Lawmakers." Washington: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc., 2016.
"Myanmar's Stalled Transition." In Crisis Group Asia Briefing, edited by International Crisis Group. Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2018.
"Myanmar (Burma) - Military Chief Warns against Strong-Arming Voters in National Elections." Asia News Monitor, 03/31/
2015 Mar 31 2015.
"Myanmar (Burma): Analysis: Myanmar Army Deployed in Maungdaw." Asia News Monitor, August 15, 2017 2017.
"Myanmar (Burma): Australia Reaffirms Defence Cooperation with Tatmadaw." Asia News Monitor, Mar 08, 2018 2018.
"Myanmar (Burma): Burma Military Chief Defends Army's Political Role." Asia News Monitor, Mar 28, 2012 2012.
"Myanmar (Burma): Senior General Min Aung Hlaing Says Dialogue without Ceasefire Would Lead to More Armed Conflict with Ethnic Groups." Asia News Monitor, Apr 02, 2014 2014.
"Myanmar (Burma): Snr-Gen Min Aung Hlaing's Armed Forces Day Speeches." Asia News Monitor, March 27, 2018 2018.
"The Myanmar Elections: Results and Implications ". In Crisis Group Asia Briefing, edited by International Crisis Group (ICG). Yangon/Brussels: International Crisis Group (ICG), 2015.
"Myanmar Ends State of Emergency in Western Rakhine State." Washington: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc., 2016.
"Myanmar Military Chief Calls for "Leading Role" in National Politics." BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, March 28, 2016 2016.
Myanmar Online Data Information Network Solutions. "Ministry of Immigration and Population " Myanmar Online Data Information Network Solutions, http://www.modins.net/myanmarinfo/ministry/population.htm. (accessed November 10, 2018).
"Myanmar Trade Summary 2015 Data." World Bank Group, 2019.
"Myanmar/Burma: Eu Sanctions 7 Senior Military, Border Guard and Police Officials Responsible for or Associated with Serious Human Rights Violations against Rohingya Population." news release., 06.25.2018, 2018.
"Myanmar: A New Muslim Insurgency in Rakhine State." In Asia Report, edited by International Crisis Group. Yangon/Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2016.
"Myanmar: The Politics of Rakhine State." In Asia Report. Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2014.
"Myanmar’s Rohingya Crisis Enters a Dangerous New Phase." In Asia Report, edited by International Crisis Group (ICG). Brussels, 2017.
Myint, Moe. "Anp Alleges Govt ‘Wrongly’ Issued Citizenship in Arakan State." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/anp-alleges-govt-wrongly-issued-citizenship-in-arakan-state.html. (accessed October 10, 2018).
———. "Anp’s Criticism of Government in Peace Conference Speech Sparks Controversy." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/anps-criticism-government-peace-conference-speech-sparks-controversy.html. (accessed October 11, 2018).
———. "Ninety Percent of Rohingya Population Ejected from Rakhine." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/specials/ninety-percent-rohingya-population-ejected-rakhine.html. (accessed August 28, 2018).
Myint, Sithu Aung. "Ma Ba Tha, Usdp: Election Bedfellows?" The Myanmar Times, Ma Ba Tha, USDP: election bedfellows? (accessed November 22, 2018).
———. "The Nld Duped Again on Constitution." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/opinion/15181-the-nld-duped-again-on-constitution.html. (accessed January 22, 2019).
———. "White Cards: The Junta’s Toxic Legacy." Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/opinion/10076-white-cards-the-junta-s-toxic-legacy.html. (accessed July 25, 2018).
Myint, Yi Ywal. "Rejection of Rakhine Advisory Body Approved by State Hluttaw." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/national-news/nay-pyi-taw/22535-rejection-of-rakhine-advisory-body-approved-by-state-hluttaw.html. (accessed August 25, 2018).
Myoe, Maung Aung. "Myanmar’s Foreign Policy under the Usdp Government: Continuities and Changes." Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 35, no. 1 (2016): 123-50.
Naing, Saw Yan. "Unhcr Rejects Rohingya Resettlement Suggestion." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/unhcr-rejects-rohingya-resettlement-suggestion.html. (accessed October 12, 2018).
Naing, Shoon. "Myanmar Monk Returns to Preaching after Ban, Denies Fuelling Rakhine Violence." Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-buddhist/myanmar-monk-returns-to-preaching-after-ban-denies-fuelling-rakhine-violence-idUSKCN1GM0GK. (accessed March 03, 2019).
Naing, Tun Myat. "Arakan Army Chief: ‘The Entire Arakan People Support Us’." By Nan Lwin Hnin Pwint (5.10.2016 2016).
Naing, U Myint. "Arakan National Party Paper Read at 2018 International Day of Democracy Ceremony." Global Light Of Myanmar, http://www.globalnewlightofmyanmar.com/arakan-national-party-paper-read-at-2018-international-day-of-democracy-ceremony/. (accessed October 10, 2018.).
Narinjara News. "Arakan Government to Be Led by Nld Lawmaker." Narinjara News, http://narinjara.com/arakan-government-to-be-led-by-nld-lawmaker/. (accessed December 5, 2018).
———. "Arakan Public Meeting Successfully Concludes in Rathidaung." Narinjara, http://narinjara.com/arakan-public-meeting-successfully-concludes-in-rahindaung/. (accessed October 5, 2018).
———. "Colonial Era Exploitation Should Be Avoided: Dr. Aye Maung." Narinjara, http://narinjara.com/colonial-era-exploitation-should-be-avoided-dr-aye-maung/. (accessed September 10, 2018).
National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. "Global Terrorism Database [Data File]." National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd. (accessed September 17, 2018.).
"National League for Democracy - 2015 Election Manifesto." National League For Democracy, 2015.
"Natural Resources of Myanmar (Burma): Ownership, Management, Revenue Sharing and Impacts." Ethnic Nationalities Affairs Centre (Union of Burma), 2017.
"A New Dimension of Violence in Myanmar’s Rakhine State ". In Crisis Group Asia Briefing. Brussels: International Crisis Group (ICG), 2019.
News, BBC. "Suu Kyi Blames Burma Violence on 'Climate of Fear'." British Broadcasting Corporation, 2013.
Nitta, Yuichi. "Two Years on, Myanmar's Lack of Reform Turns Investors Away." Nikkei Asian Review, https://asia.nikkei.com/Economy/Two-years-on-Myanmar-s-lack-of-reform-turns-investors-away. (accessed January 22, 2019).
Nyein, Nyein. "State Counselor Forms Enterprise on Rakhine State, Calls for ‘Unity’." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/state-counselor-forms-enterprise-rakhine-state-calls-unity.html. (accessed August 28, 2018).
Oo, Khin Maung. "A Flea Cannot Make a Whirl of Dust." The Global New Light of Myanmar, 11.27. 2016.
Oo, Kyaw Lwin , Kyaw Thu, and Min Thein. "Rakhine Political Parties to Meet over Myanmar Official's Remarks on Ethnic Army." Radio Free Asia, https://www.rfa.org/english/news/myanmar/rakhine-political-parties-to-meet-01092019163358.html. (accessed February 3, 2019).
"Opening Ceremony of First Arakan National Party Conference Held
25.10.2014 " news release., 2014, https://www.facebook.com/792021817520982/posts/press-releaseopening-ceremony-of-first-arakan-national-party-conference-held2510/795445623845268/.
Oppenheim, Marella. "‘It Only Takes One Terrorist’: The Buddhist Monk Who Reviles Myanmar’s Muslims." The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/may/12/only-takes-one-terrorist-buddhist-monk-reviles-myanmar-muslims-rohingya-refugees-ashin-wirathu. (accessed November 11, 2018).
Paddock, Richard C. . "Aung San Suu Kyi Asks U.S. Not to Refer to ‘Rohingya’." The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/07/world/asia/myanmar-rohingya-aung-san-suu-kyi.html. (accessed August 25, 2018).
"Pakistan's Jihadist Heartland: Southern Punjab." In Asia Report: International Crisis Group (ICG), 2016.
Parikh, Tej. "Without State Reform, Myanmar Isn’t Going Anywhere Fast." The Diplomat, https://thediplomat.com/2018/06/without-state-reform-myanmar-isnt-going-anywhere-fast/. (accessed December 12, 2018).
Pedersen, Morten B. "Myanmar in 2014:'Tacking against the Wind'." Southeast Asian Affairs 2015, no. 1 (2015): 221-45.
Peel, Michael. "Myanmar: The Military-Commercial Complex - the Emerging Market Tempts Multinationals but Groups with Links to the Army Loom Large." Financial Times, https://www.ft.com/content/c6fe7dce-d26a-11e6-b06b-680c49b4b4c0. (accessed July 23, 2018).
PERMANENT MISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR TO THE UNITED NATIONS. "Statement by His Excellency U Thein Sein, President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and Chairman of the Myanmar Delegation " news release, 2012, https://gadebate.un.org/sites/default/files/gastatements/67/MM_en.pdf.
"President Thein Sein's Inaugural Speech." In EBO Analysis Paper, edited by Euro Burma Office. Chiang Mai: Euro Burma Office, 2011.
Preston, Alex. "The Rohingya and Myanmar's 'Buddhist Bin Laden'." GQ (Gentlemen's Quarterly), https://www.gq-magazine.co.uk/article/myanmar-rohingya-muslim-burma. (accessed October 23, 2018).
Promchertchoo, Pichayada. "Distrust and Suspicion Deepen in Myanmar's Rakhine State Amid Violence." Channel News Asia. (accessed October 25, 2018).
Punton, Melanie, and Katharina Welle. "Applying Process Tracing in Five Steps." Centre for Development Impact Practice Paper April 2015, no. 10 (2015): 1-8.
Qingrun, Song. "Second Panglong Conference Sees Significant Breakthroughs." Mizzima, http://www.mizzima.com/news-opinion/second-panglong-conference-sees-significant-breakthroughs. (accessed August 25, 2018).
Quintana, Tomás Ojea. "Statement of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar." news release, 2013, http://www.globalr2p.org/media/files/rapporteur-press-statement-feb-2013.pdf.
"Rakhine Sectarian Violence - One Year On." IRIN Asia Service, 06/13/
2013 Jun 13 2013.
"Rakhine State Hluttaw in Line with Local Populace: Rakhine State Hluttaw Speaker." news release., http://www.president-office.gov.mm/en/?q=issues/rakhine-state-affairs/id-8083.
Raleigh, Cliondah, Andrew Linke, Hegre Håvard, and Joakim Karlsen. "Introducing Acled - Armed Conflict Location and Event Data." Journal of Peace Research 47, no. 5 (2010): 651-60.
Rees, Evan. "The Buddhist Core of Fractured Myanmar." Stratfor Worldview, https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/buddhist-core-fractured-myanmar. (accessed October 24, 2018).
Regan, Helen. "'What Future Do We Have?' Caught in the Crossfire of Myanmar's Northern Conflict, Civilians See Little Hope." Time Magazine. (accessed 03.01, 2019).
Regan, Patrick M, and Daniel Norton. "Greed, Grievance, and Mobilization in Civil Wars." Journal of Conflict Resolution 49, no. 3 (2005): 319-36.
"Report of Ohchr Mission to Bangladesh: Interviews with Rohingyas Fleeing from Myanmar since 9 October 2016." edited by UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR): United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
"The Resistance of the Monks." Human Rights Watch, 2009.
"Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 24 December 2012." edited by United Nations General Assembly. New York: United Nations General Assembly, 2013.
Reuters. "Govt Rejects Allegations of Human Rights Abuses in Rakhine." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/govt-rejects-allegations-human-rights-abuses-rakhine.html. (accessed August 24, 2018).
———. "Myanmar Minister Assures Rohingya in Bangladesh Repatriation Is a Priority." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/myanmar-minister-assures-rohingya-bangladesh-repatriation-priority.html. (accessed August 28, 2018).
Richardson, John E. "Analysing Newspapers." An approach from critical discourse analysis New York: Palgrave Macmillan (2007).
"Rohingya Repatriation Survey." edited by Xchange Foundation. Malta: Xchange Foundation, 2018.
Rousseau, David L. Identifying Threats and Threatening Identities: The Social Construction of Realism and Liberalism. Stanford University Press, 2006.
Saha, S.C. Perspectives on Contemporary Ethnic Conflict: Primal Violence or the Politics of Conviction? : Lexington Books, 2006.
Sambanis, Nicholas. "Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes?: A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (Part 1)." The Journal of Conflict Resolution 45, no. 3 (2001): 259-82.
Samet, Oren. "The Explosive Politics of Voting Rights in Myanmar." The Diplomat, https://thediplomat.com/2015/03/the-explosive-politics-of-voting-rights-in-myanmar/. (accessed July 24, 2018).
Saw, U Hla. "Interview with U Hla Saw, General Secretary of the Rakhine Nationalities Development Party." By Narinjara News Agency (2011).
Schissler, Matt, Matthew J Walton, and Phyu Phyu Thi. "Reconciling Contradictions: Buddhist-Muslim Violence, Narrative Making and Memory in Myanmar." Journal of Contemporary Asia 47, no. 3 (2017): 376-95.
Schissler, Matthew. "New Technologies, Established Practices: Developing Narratives of Muslim Threat in Myanmar." Islam and the State in Myanmar: Muslim-Buddhist Relations and the Politics of Belonging (2016): 211-33.
Schonthal, Benjamin, and Matthew J Walton. "The (New) Buddhist Nationalisms? Symmetries and Specificities in Sri Lanka and Myanmar." Contemporary Buddhism 17, no. 1 (2016): 81-115.
Sein, Thein. "President Thein Sein's State of Union Speech (2012)." Hla Oo, http://hlaoo1980.blogspot.com/2012/03/president-thein-seins-state-of-union.html. (accessed July 25, 2018).
Selth, Andrew. "Burma's Muslims and the War on Terror." Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 27, no. 2 (2004): 107-26.
———. "The Fallen Idol: Aung San Suu Kyi and the Politics of Personality." ABC Religion and Ethics, http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2017/09/12/4733319.htm. (accessed August 28, 2018).
———. "The Rohingya Crisis and Myanmar's Military Responses." Lowy Institute, https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/rohingyas-and-politico-military-strategies. (accessed May 23, 2018).
"Senior General Min Aung Hlaing Holds Talks with Thai Pm." news release., 2018.
"Senior General Min Aung Hlaing Meets with Chinese President Mr Xi Jinping." The Global New Light Of Myanmar, 11.2. 2016.
Services, Office of the Commander-in-Chief of Defence. "The Stance on the Terrorist Attacks of the Extremist Bengalis in Buthidaung-Maungtaw Region in Rakhine State " https://www.facebook.com/Cincds/posts/the-stance-on-the-terrorist/1492836477503879/. (accessed July 24, 2018).
Sharma, Raj Kumar. "Rise of Islamic Radicalism in Bangladesh Implications for the Security of North-East India." [In English]. Himalayan and Central Asian Studies 19, no. 1/2 (Jan-Jun
Jan-Jun 2015 2015): 67-0_4.
Shin, Aung. "Suu Kyi Strengthens Ties with Asean and China." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/opinion/24927-suu-kyi-strengthens-ties-with-asean-and-china.html. (accessed January 27, 2019).
Smith, Anthony D. "The Ethnic Origins of Nations." (1986).
———. Nationalism and Modernism. Routledge, 1998.
Smith, Martin Dec. Ethnic Groups in Burma : Development, Democracy and Human Rights / Martin Smith ; in Collaboration with Annie Allsebrook. Human Rights Series ; No. 8. Edited by Annie Allsebrook and International Anti-Slavery. London: Anti-Slavery International, 1994.
Smith, Matthew. " All You Can Do Is Pray": Crimes against Humanity and Ethnic Cleansing of Rohingya Muslims in Burma's Arakan State. Human Rights Watch, 2013.
Smith, Matthew, Amy Smith, Puttanee Kangkun, Taimoor Sonhan, Nickey Diamond, and John Quinley. "They Gave Them Long Swords: Preparations for Genocide and Crimes against Humanity against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State, Myanmar." Fortify Rights, 2018.
Smith, Mikaila. "The Nuances of Win-Win: China-Myanmar Relations in 2018." China-United States Exchange Foundation, https://www.chinausfocus.com/foreign-policy/the-nuances-of-win-win-china-myanmar-relations-in-2018. (accessed January 29, 2019).
Solanki, Viraj. "India Boosts Relations with Myanmar, Where Chinese Influence Is Growing." The International Institutie for Strategic Studies, https://www.iiss.org/blogs/analysis/2018/05/india-myanmar-china-relations. (accessed January 28, 2019).
State Counsellor Office Information Committee. "Information Committee Refutes Rumours of Rape." The Republic of the Union of Myanmar - State Counsellor Office, http://www.statecounsellor.gov.mm/en/node/551. (accessed August 25, 2018).
Stecklow, Steve, Tin Htet Paing, Simon Lewis, Shoon Niang, and Aye Min Thant. "Why Facebook Is Losing the War on Hate Speech in Myanmar." Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/myanmar-facebook-hate/. (accessed November 6, 2018).
Steckman, Laura. "Myanmar at the Crossroads: The Shadow of Jihadist Extremism." Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses 7, no. 4 (2015): 10-16.
Stewart, Frances. "Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: An Introduction and Some Hypotheses." In Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict. Conflict, Inequality and Ethnicity, edited by Frances Stewart. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Stoakes, Emanuel. "Monks, Powerpoints, and Ethnic Cleansing." Foreign Policy, https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/26/evidence-links-myanmar-government-monks-ethnic-cleansing-rohingya/. (accessed October 20, 2018).
Stokke, Kristian, Roman Vakulch, and Indra Øverland. "Myanmar: A Political Economy Analysis." Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 2018.
Strangio, Sebastian. "Wirathu: "The Intention of Islam Is to Influence the Whole World through Rapid Population"." Southeast Asia Globe, http://sea-globe.com/wirathu-interview-sebastian-strangio-southeast-asia-globe/. (accessed October 27, 2018.).
Suaedy, Ahmad, and Muhammad Hafiz. "Citizenship Challenges in Myanmar's Democratic Transition: Case Study of the Rohingya." Indonesian Journal for Islamic Studies 22, no. 1 (2015): 29-65.
Suan, Hao Do. "Letter Dated 27 June 2018 from the Permanent Representative of Myanmar to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council." United Nations Security Council, 2018.
Sugimoto, Orie, and Aung San Suu Kyi. "Exclusive: Interview with Aung San Suu Kyi." Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK), https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/nhknewsline/inconversation/exclusiveaungsansuukyi/. (accessed August 27, 2018).
Supalak, Ganjanakhundee. "Myanmar Elite Must Alter Their Thinking on the Rohingya." The Nation, 02/27/
2013 Feb 27 2013.
"Survey of Burma/Myanmar - Public Opinion." Center For Insights in Survey Research, 2017.
Suu Kyi, Aung San. "Aung San Suu Kyi - Nobel Lecture." The Nobel Foundation, https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1991/kyi-lecture_en.html. (accessed August 22, 2018).
———. "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi Report on the Rakhine Crisis." Voltairenet, http://www.voltairenet.org/article198352.html. (accessed August 28, 2018).
———. "Speech Delivered by Her Excellency Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, State Counsellor of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar on Government’s Efforts with Regard to National Reconciliation and Peace " news release, 2017, http://www.myanmarembassydhaka.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/SC-speech-transcription-Final-_19-9-2017__2.pdf.
———. "State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's Speech on the Occasion of the One Year Anniversary of the Government (30 March 2017)." news release, 2017, http://www.statecounsellor.gov.mm/en/node/798.
———. "State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s Speech on the 2nd Anniversary of Nld Government." The Global Light of Myanmar, http://www.globalnewlightofmyanmar.com/state-counsellor-daw-aung-san-suu-kyis-speech-2nd-anniversary-nld-government/. (accessed September 2, 2018).
Swami, Praveen. "India's Invisible Jihad." [In English]. Current Trends in Islamist Ideology 22 (Nov 2017 2017): 80-115,60.
Swe, U Kyaw Tint. "Report on the Current Work of the Government: Political, Economic and Social Development, and the Peace Process." Naypyidaw: The Republic Of The Union Of Myanmar President Office, 2018.
Tausch, Nicole, Julia C Becker, Russell Spears, Oliver Christ, Rim Saab, Purnima Singh, and Roomana N Siddiqui. "Explaining Radical Group Behavior: Developing Emotion and Efficacy Routes to Normative and Nonnormative Collective Action." Journal of personality and social psychology 101, no. 1 (2011): 129.
Taydas, Zeynep, Jason Enia, and Patrick James. "Why Do Civil Wars Occur? Another Look at the Theoretical Dichotomy of Opportunity Versus Grievance." Review of international Studies 37, no. 5 (2011): 2627-50.
Taylor, Jerome. "Burma's Rohingya Muslims: Aung San Suu Kyi's Blind Spot." The Independent, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/burmas-rohingya-muslims-aung-san-suu-kyis-blind-spot-8061619.html. (accessed August 18, 2018).
Than, San Maung. "Arakan National Party Starts by-Election Campaign in Rathedaung." Burma News International, https://www.bnionline.net/en/news/arakan-national-party-starts-election-campaign-rathedaung. (accessed Feburary 7, 2019).
Thaung, Aung. "Head to Head with a Burmese Hardliner." By Sanay Lin (2013).
The Associated Press. "Myanmar Army Ordered to Take Offensive against Arakan Army." The Associated Press, https://www.apnews.com/3541e6892bab46399e8b424c8a1cd32b. (accessed February 2, 2019).
The Global New Light of Myanmar. "Arakan National Party Presents Policy, Stance and Work Program." The Global New Light of Myanmar, http://www.globalnewlightofmyanmar.com/arakan-national-party-presents-policy-stance-and-work-program/. (accessed October 9, 2018).
The Guardian. "Burma Census Is Not Counting Rohingya Muslims, Says Un Agency " The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/02/burma-census-rohingya-muslims-un-agency. (accessed July 24, 2018).
The Myanmar Times. "Japan Affirms Military Ties with Tatmadaw." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/news/japan-affirms-military-ties-tatmadaw.html. (accessed January 10, 2019).
———. "Myanmar's 2018 Foreign Policy Outlook." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/news/myanmars-2018-foreign-policy-outlook.html. (accessed January 27, 2019).
———. "Third Panglong: Was It a Success? ." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/news/third-panglong-was-it-success.html. (accessed January 18, 2019).
Thu, Kyaw Mratt. "Why Did Aye Maung Win in Ann?" Frontier Myanmar, https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/why-did-aye-maung-win-in-ann. (accessed February 17, 2019).
Thu, Mratt Kyaw. "Tatmadaw, Sangha and Government Must Work Together, Sitagu Sayadaw Says in Sermon to Officers." Frontier Myanmar, https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/tatmadaw-sangha-and-government-must-work-together-sitagu-sayadaw-says-in-sermon-to-officers. (accessed November 9, 2018).
Thura, Aung. "Myanmar Prominent Buddhist Monk Cheers Israeli Violations over Palestinians." MMedia, http://www.m-mediagroup.com/en/archives/8730. (accessed November 9, 2018).
"Towards a Peaceful, Fair and Prosperous Future for the People of Rakhine." Yangon: Advisory Commission on Rakhine State, 2017.
Tun, Aung, and Martin Petty. "Activists Outraged as Myanmar Jails Writer for Buddhist Insults." Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-religion/activists-outraged-as-myanmar-jails-writer-for-buddhist-insults-idUSKBN0OI24720150602. (accessed November 3, 2018).
Turnell, Sean. "Banking and Financial Regulation and Reform in Myanmar." Journal of Southeast Asian Economies (2014): 225-40.
UN Cartographic Section, MIMU. "Rakhine State, Myanmar (as of 16 Jul 2013)." edited by UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA): UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 2013.
UNHCR. "Bangladesh and Unhcr Agree on Voluntary Returns Framework for When Refugees Decide Conditions Are Right " UNHCR, http://www.unhcr.org/news/press/2018/4/5ad061d54/bangladesh-unhcr-agree-voluntary-returns-framework-refugees-decide-conditions.html. (accessed August 28, 2018).
———. "Refugee Response in Bangladesh." Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/myanmar_refugees. (accessed October 12, 2018).
United Nations. "For Rohingya Refugees, Imminent Surge in Births Is Traumatic Legacy of Sexual Violence - Special Report." UN News, For Rohingya Refugees, Imminent Surge in Births is Traumatic Legacy of Sexual Violence - Special Report. (accessed August 24, 2018).
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. "Situation of Human Rights of Rohingya Muslims and Other Minorities in Myanmar." In Annual Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and Reports of the Office of the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General, edited by Human Rights Council: United Nations, 2016.
"Unlocking Civil Society and Peace in Myanmar." Yangon: Paung Sie Facility, 2018.
Uppsala Conflict Data Program. "Government of Myanmar (Burma) - Kio." Department of Peace and Conflict Research, https://ucdp.uu.se/#/statebased/461. (accessed March 3 2019.03.01, 2018).
van Klinken, Gerry, and Su Mon Thazin Aung. "The Contentious Politics of Anti-Muslim Scapegoating in Myanmar." Journal of Contemporary Asia 47, no. 3 (2017): 353-75.
Vanderbrink, Rachel, and Ko Win Niang. "Call to Put Rohingya in Refugee Camps." Radio Free Asia, https://www.rfa.org/english/news/rohingya-07122012185242.html. (accessed July 24, 2018).
"Vietnam-Myanmar (Burma): Vietnam, Myanmar Promote Defence Cooperation." Asia News Monitor, 06/18/
2018 Jun 18 2018.
Vinh, Vo Xuan. "Asean's Approach to Myanmar." Himalayan and Central Asian Studies 18, no. 1/2 (2014): 21.
Vogt, RJ, and Khin Zaw. "State/Region Hluttaw Results: Graphics." The Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/national-news/17642-state-and-region-hluttaw-results-graphics.html#.Vkv0mC4cAfw.twitter. (accessed September 15, 2018).
Walker, Mindy. "Civil Society in Myanmar’s New Democracy." In World Learning, Myanmar. Yangon: Institute For Political and Civic Engagements, 2017.
Walton, Matthew J. Buddhism, Politics and Political Thought in Myanmar. Cambridge University Press, 2016.
———. "Has the Nld Learned Nothing About Ethnic Concerns?" The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/opinion/has-the-nld-learned-nothing-about-ethnic-concerns.html. (accessed August 30, 2018).
———. "Misunderstanding Myanmar’s Ma Ba Tha." Asia Times, http://www.atimes.com/article/misunderstanding-myanmars-ma-ba-tha/. (accessed November 2, 2018).
———. "Monks in Politics, Monks in the World: Buddhist Activism in Contemporary Myanmar." Social Research 82, no. 2 (2015).
———. "‘Rowdy Monks’ or a Crisis of Monastic Authority?" The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/opinion/guest-column/rowdy-monks-crisis-monastic-authority.html. (accessed February 20, 2019).
Walton, Matthew J, and Susan Hayward. "Contesting Buddhist Narratives: Democratization, Nationalism, and Communal Violence in Myanmar." Policy Studies, no. 71 (2014): 0_1.
Wansai, Sai. "Evaluation of the Third 21st Century Panglong Conference: More Informal Engagement Than Official Meetings?" https://english.panglong.org/2018/07/16/evaluation-of-the-third-21st-century-panglong-conference-more-informal-engagement-than-official-meetings/. (accessed August 30, 2018).
"We Have to Strive Our Utmost to Stand as a Strong Government While Conducting Changes and Amendments in Order to Catch up with the Changing World - President U Thein Sein Delivers Inaugural Address to Pyidaungsu Hluttaw." The New Light Of Myanmar, 2011.03.31 2011, 1-6.
"We Will Destroy Everything." London: Amnesty International, 2018.
Wee, Vivienne, and Graeme Lang. "Ethnic Violence and the Loss of State Legitimacy: Burma and Indonesia in a Context of Post-Colonial Developmentalism." Perspectives on Contemporary Ethnic Conflict: Primal Violence Or the Politics of Conviction? (2006): 47.
Weng, Lawi. "Ethnic Groups Have Lost Faith in the Nld." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/opinion/ethnic-groups-lost-faith-nld.html. (accessed August 24, 2018).
———. "Extremist Monks Hold Talks Throughout Strife-Torn Arakan State." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/extremist-monks-hold-talks-throughout-strife-torn-arakan-state.html. (accessed October 22, 2018).
———. "Ma Ba Tha’s New Political Party Denounces Nld Govt." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/ma-ba-thas-new-political-party-denounces-nld-govt.html. (accessed October 22, 2018).
———. "On Armed Forces Day, One Holiday, Two Visions." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/armed-forces-day-one-holiday-two-visions.html. (accessed August 24, 2018).
———. "Stop ‘War Crimes’ in Rakhine or We’ll Join the Fight There, Tnla Tells Tatmadaw." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/stop-war-crimes-rakhine-well-join-fight-tnla-tells-tatmadaw.html. (accessed March 20, 2019).
Wezeman, Pieter D., Aude Fleurant, Alexandra Kouimova, Nan Tian, and Siemon T. Wezeman. "Trends in Interntaional Arms Transfers 2017." In SIPRI Fact Sheet. Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2018.
Win, Swe. "Myanmar’s Kaman Muslims Look to Elections to Restore Their Rights." Mizzima, http://mizzima.com/news-election-2015-election-features/myanmar%25E2%2580%2599s-kaman-muslims-look-elections-restore-their-rights. (accessed February 2, 2019).
Wintour, Patrick. "Aung San Suu Kyi Seeks New Relationship with Un over Rohingya Crisis " The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/28/aung-san-suu-kyi-un-relationship-rohingya-crisis. (accessed August 28, 2018).
"World Bank Open Data." World Bank, 2019.
Wright, Rebecca, Matt Rivers, and Mark Phillips. "Return to Rakhine: 'Genocide Never Happened in This Country'." CNN Wire Service, 10/18/
2018 Oct 18 2018.
Wucherpfennig, Julian, Nils W Metternich, Lars-Erik Cederman, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. "Ethnicity, the State, and the Duration of Civil War." World Politics 64, no. 1 (2012): 79-115.
Yegar, Moshe. "The Muslims of Burma, a Study of Minority Groups, Weesbaden, Otto Harrassowitz, 1972." Natmagh Bon Kyaw, History of Anglo-Burmese War (in Burmese), Pagan Publisher, Rangoon (1975): 7.
Zarni, Maung. "Buddhist Nationalism in Burma." Tricycle.com, https://subscribe.tricycle.com/TRI/?f=donate&_ga=2.143163701.1867242302.1536238370-1407872778.1536238370. (accessed August 31, 2018).
———. "Is Burma’s Anti-Muslim Violence Led by “Buddhist Neo-Nazis”?" By Ray Downs (2013).
Zaw, Htet Naing. "Nationalist Group Members’ Bid to Form Political Party Rejected." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/nationalist-group-members-bid-form-political-party-rejected.html. (accessed November 1, 2018).
Zaw, John, and Simon Lewis. "Hardline Monks Turn up Political Heat Ahead of Myanmar Elections." Union of Catholic Asian News, https://www.ucanews.com/news/hardline-monks-turn-up-political-heat-ahead-of-myanmar-elections/73822. (accessed October 24, 2018).
Zaw, Nobel. "Population Control Bill Could ‘Stop the Bengalis’: Wirathu." The Irrawaddy, https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/population-control-bill-could-stop-the-bengalis-wirathu.html. (accessed November 12, 2018).
Zin, Thiri Min. "Myanmar Officials Respond to Rights Group’s Report on Bulldozed Rohingya Villages." Radio Free Asia, Myanmar Service, https://www.rfa.org/english/news/myanmar/myanmar-officials-respond-to-rights-groups-report-on-bulldozed-rohingya-villages-02232018163028.html. (accessed October 8, 2018).
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top