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研究生:王湘婷
研究生(外文):Hsiang-Ting Wang
論文名稱:馬來酸接枝聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯/層狀苯基磷酸鋅奈米複合材料之製備與特性分析
論文名稱(外文):Preparation and Characterization of Maleic Acid- Grafted Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/ Layered Zinc Phenylphosphonate Nanocomposites
指導教授:吳宗明吳宗明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzong-Ming Wu
口試委員:李思禹林彥文
口試委員(外文):Si-Yu LiYen-Wen Lin
口試日期:2018-12-03
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:材料科學與工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯層狀苯基磷酸鋅奈米複合材料結晶行為生物降解特性
外文關鍵詞:Poly(butylene adipate -co-terephthalate)Layered zinc phenylphosphonateNanocompositesCrystalline behaviorsMicrostructureBiodegradable
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聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯(Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate),PBAT)為環境友好之生物可分解高分子,擁有類似線性低密度聚乙烯的特性,非常具有發展潛力。本研究以不同莫耳比例之己二酸及對苯二甲酸二甲酯合成出PBAT,接著將馬來酸接枝於PBAT高分子鏈上,並利用化學插層法製備出有機改質PPZn,使PBAT高分子鏈插層進入有機改質PPZn層間時能有化學鍵結產生,以增強無機物與高分子基材的相容性,更進一步探討生物可分解高分子複合材料之結晶行為與不同形貌下的生物降解行為。使用XRD鑑定己烷二胺及十二烷基二胺改質PPZn的結構排列,層間距由原本的14.6 Å分別增加至24.1 Å與16 Å。由FT-IR圖譜觀察到改質後PPZn增加了波數為2853-3005 cm-1 和1650-1550 cm-1之吸收峰,表示長鏈烷基胺成功插層進入PPZn層間中,並經由溶劑插層法製備出不同比例之PBAT/C6-PPZn及C12-PPZn奈米複合材料,由XRD圖譜及TEM影像可以判斷改質PPZn以部分剝離與部分插層且隨機分散於PBAT 基材中,且添加改質PPZn並不會改變PBAT之結晶結構,再利用TGA分析複合材料熱穩定性,得知有機改質PPZn對於PBAT具有催化裂解效果。探討透過添加入不同比例C6-PPZn及C12-PPZn對於PBAT之等溫結晶行為影響,發現C6-PPZn之添加上升會使複合材料結晶速率提升,但當C12-PPZn添加比例越高時,結晶速率則是呈現由快至遲緩的趨勢。降解測試藉由假單胞菌(Lipase from Pseudomonas sp.)酵素酶作為降解液,再進行不同形貌之PBAT及其C6-PPZ和C12-PPZ奈米複合材料之生物降解測試,由其重量損失與降解時間之變化,可得知PBAT之降解速率會隨著馬來酸的加入及改質PPZn含量上升而使降解速率增加,且多孔形貌之重量損失程度相較於薄膜形貌更加顯著。
Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) is an environmentally friendly biodegradable polymer which contains the comparative physical properties to that of low-density polyethylene. In this study, PBAT was synthesized from different molar ratios of adipic acid and dimethyl terephthalate. Then, the maleic acid was grafted onto PBAT polymer chain (g-PBAT) and the organically modified PPZn was sucessfully synthesized to intercalate diaminohexane and dodecanediamine into the interlayer spacing of PPZn (designated as C6-PPZn and C12-PPZn) to improve the compatibility and dispersibility between the polymer and PPZn. Furthermore, the dispersion, crystallization and biodegradability of g-PBAT/organically modified PPZn nanocomposites were investigated systemtically.
The interlayer spacing of PPZn determined by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) was increased from 14.6 Å for PPZn to 24.1 Å and 16 Å for C6-PPZn and C12-PPZn, respectively. Compared to the PPZn, the FT-IR spectra of organically modified PPZn contain absorption bands at 2853-3005 cm-1 and 1650-1550 cm-1 for the C-H stretching vibration and NH2 deformation from diaminohexane and dodecanediamine. The g-PBAT/ organically modified PPZn nanocomposites were prepared by solvent intercalation method. The structure and morphology of the g-PBAT/ organically modified PPZn nanocomposites were characterized by WAXD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of WAXD and TEM results show that the organically modified PPZn are randomly dispersed in the PBAT matrix. However, the addition of organically modified PPZn into PBAT would not change the crystalline structure of the nanocomposites. The results of isothermal crystallization show that the crystallization rate increases when the incorporation of C6-PPZn in nanocomposites increases, in contrast to C12-PPZn. Degradation tests was used Lipase from Pseudomonas sp. as the enzymatic degradation solution. Both the increasing content of organically modified PPZn and the presence of grafted maleic acid into PBAT would increase the weight loss of PBAT. In addition, the degradation rate of the porous morphology is more significant than the film morphology.
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 v
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xix
第一章 前言 1
1.1 生物可分解高分子簡介 2
1.2 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯簡介 5
1.3 高分子奈米複合材料簡介 8
1.4 層狀苯基磷酸鋅之簡介 10
第二章 文獻回顧及理論基礎 12
2.1 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯複合材料 12
2.2 高分子/層狀苯基磷酸鋅之奈米複合材料 21
2.3 冷凍乾燥技術製備多孔性生物可分解高分子 31
2.4 高分子結晶動力學 37
2.4.1 Avrami 方程式 38
2.4.2 Hoffman-Weeks平衡熔點(Tmo) 40
2.5 研究動機與方法 41
第三章 實驗設計及方法 42
3.1 實驗材料 42
3.2 實驗儀器 45
3.3 實驗架構 47
3.4 實驗步驟 49
3.4.1 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯之製備 49
3.4.2 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯接枝馬來酸之製備 50
3.4.3 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯接枝馬來酸之接枝率測定 50
3.4.4 層狀苯基磷酸鋅之製備 51
3.4.5 有機改質層狀苯基磷酸鋅之製備 51
3.4.6 利用溶劑成膜法製備聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯接枝馬來酸/有機改質層狀苯基磷酸鋅奈米複合材料 52
3.4.7 利用冷凍乾燥法製備多孔性聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯接枝馬來酸/有機改質層狀苯基磷酸鋅奈米複合材料 52
3.4.8 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯接枝馬來酸/有機改質層狀苯基磷酸鋅奈米複合材料之生物降解實驗 53
3.4.9 多孔形貌聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯接枝馬來酸/有機改質層狀苯基磷酸鋅奈米複合材料之孔隙率測定 54
3.5 分析儀器及操作條件 55
3.5.1 凝膠滲透層析儀(Gel Permeation Chromatography,GPC) 55
3.5.2 超導磁場核磁共振儀( Nuclear Magenetic Resonance,NMR) 55
3.5.3 示差掃描式熱分析儀(Different scanning calorimeter,DSC) 55
3.5.4 廣角X光繞射儀(Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction,WAXD) 55
3.5.5 傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜儀(Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer,FT-IR) 56
3.5.6 熱重分析儀(Thermogravimetric analysis,TGA) 56
3.5.7 穿透式電子顯微鏡(Transmission Electron Microscope,TEM) 56
3.5.8 場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡(Field-emmision Scanning electronic microscopy,FE-SEM) 57
第四章 結果與討論 58
4.1 PPZn製備與改質之分析 58
4.1.1 PPZn及有機改質PPZn之結構分析 58
4.1.2 PPZn及有機改質PPZn之熱性質分析 61
4.2 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯PBAT-80與其奈米複合材料之特性研究探討 63
4.2.1 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯PBAT-80之組成與結構鑑定 63
4.2.2 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯接枝馬來酸g-PBAT-80之特性分析 65
4.2.3 g-PBAT-80添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之分散性研究 68
4.2.4 g-PBAT-80添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之分散性研究 70
4.2.5 g-PBAT-80添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之等溫結晶行為探討 72
4.2.6 g-PBAT-80添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之等溫結晶行為探討 78
4.2.7 g-PBAT-80添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之薄膜形貌生物降解測試 84
4.2.8 g-PBAT-80添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之薄膜形貌生物降解測試 88
4.2.9 g-PBAT-80添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之多孔形貌生物降解測試 92
4.2.10 g-PBAT-80添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之多孔形貌生物降解測試 96
4.3 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯PBAT-50與其奈米複合材料之特性研究探討 100
4.3.1 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯PBAT-50之組成與結構鑑定 100
4.3.2 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯接枝馬來酸g-PBAT-50之分析 102
4.3.3 g-PBAT-50添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之分散性研究 105
4.3.4 g-PBAT-50添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之分散性研究 107
4.3.5 g-PBAT-50添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之等溫結晶行為探討 109
4.3.6 g-PBAT-50添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之等溫結晶行為探討 115
4.3.7 g-PBAT-50添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之薄膜形貌生物降解測試 121
4.3.8 g-PBAT-50添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之薄膜形貌生物降解測試 125
4.3.9 g-PBAT-50添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之多孔形貌生物降解測試 129
4.3.10 g-PBAT-50添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之多孔形貌生物降解測試 133
4.4 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯PBAT-20與其奈米複合材料之特性研究探討 137
4.4.1 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯PBAT-20之組成與結構鑑定 137
4.4.2 聚丁烯己二酸對苯二甲酸酯接枝馬來酸g-PBAT-20之分析 139
4.4.3 g-PBAT-20添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之分散性研究 142
4.4.4 g-PBAT-20添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之分散性研究 144
4.4.5 g-PBAT-20添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之等溫結晶行為探討 146
4.4.6 g-PBAT-20添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之等溫結晶行為探討 152
4.4.7 g-PBAT-20添加C6-PPZn奈米複合材料之薄膜形貌生物降解測試 158
4.4.8 g-PBAT-20添加C12-PPZn奈米複合材料之薄膜形貌生物降解測試 162
第五章 結論 166
參考文獻 168
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