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研究生:賴佑宜
研究生(外文):Yu-Yi Lai
論文名稱:受保護老樹之白蟻危害調查與應用餌劑防治危害芒果樹的臺灣家白蟻群體
論文名稱(外文):Termite infestation survey of protected old trees and baiting Formosan subterranean termite (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) in mango trees
指導教授:李後鋒李後鋒引用關係
口試委員:梁國汶葉信廷
口試日期:2019-01-03
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:臺灣家白蟻白蟻防治白蟻餌劑地下餌站系統樹木保護
外文關鍵詞:Coptotermes formosanustermite control termite baitunderground baiting system treeprotection
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本研究調查228棵臺中市受保護樹木,包括66棵榕樹 (Ficus microcarpa L. f.)、56棵樟樹 (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl.)、54棵芒果 (Mangifera indica L.) 以及52棵茄苳 (Bischofia javanica Bl.) 等四個主要樹種。總共發現3科7種白蟻,白蟻整體危害率為36.0%,其中以臺灣家白蟻 (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) 占18.9%最高。分析發現白蟻的發生與樹高、海拔呈顯著正相關,而與樹齡、胸圍無關。樹種顯著影響白蟻物種的組成,在榕樹、芒果、樟樹上分別容易發現木白蟻科 (Kalotermitidae)、鼻白蟻科 (Rhinotermitidae) 以及白蟻科 (Termitidae) 之物種。臺灣家白蟻與臺灣土白蟻 (Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki)) 危害率均顯著高於其他物種,而兩者危害率之間並無顯著差異。本研究在9棵受到臺灣家白蟻危害的芒果樹上及其周圍裝設2組地上及8組地下餌站,以染色標記法證明在樹上危害的白蟻與地下餌站內活動的白蟻為同一群體,並在曾經發現染色白蟻的地下餌站施用含有0.5%六伏隆 (hexaflumuron) 的白蟻餌劑 (termite bait) 進行防治。在施用餌劑的9棵芒果樹中,有4棵是個別只受到一群臺灣家白蟻危害;有3棵是同時受到同一群臺灣家白蟻危害;有1棵是同時受到兩群臺灣家白蟻危害,有1棵則是同時受到臺灣家白蟻及黃肢散白蟻 (Reticulitermes flaviceps Oshima) 危害。每棵樹木平均使用6.9 ± 2.3支白蟻餌劑,危害每棵樹木的白蟻群體平均約消耗5.3 ± 2.0支白蟻餌劑,亦即為1.6 ± 0.6公克之六伏隆,且最後能在12.7 ± 7.2週內消滅危害芒果樹的臺灣家白蟻群體。臺灣土白蟻及黃肢散白蟻皆會在防治完臺灣家白蟻之後入侵餌站並取食剩餘之餌劑,但在本研究中尚無法衡量白蟻餌劑對臺灣土白蟻之影響,然而黃肢散白蟻在取食餌劑後亦在8週內被消滅。
Termite infestation is common on urban old trees, we investigated 228 protected old trees among four major tree species in the administrative areas of Taichung, including 66 Ficus microcarpa L. f., 56 Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., 54 Mangifera indica L., and 52 Bischofia javanica Bl. Total termite infestation rate was 52.2%, and seven termite species of three families were identified. Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was the dominant species on surveyed trees, which accounted for 18.9%. Height and altitude of trees were significant positive correlation with the termite occurrence, but age and circumference at breast height (CBH) of trees have no significant correlation with the termite occurrence. Tree species significantly associated with termite species composition on trees. Species of kalotermitids, rhinotermitids, and termitids have tendency to occur on F. microcarpa, M. indica, and Ci. camphora, respectively. The occurrence of Co. formosanus and Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) were both significantly higher than that of the other termite species, there was no significant difference between the occurrence of Co. formosanus and O. formosanus on protected old trees. We installed two above-ground and eight in-ground monitoring stations around nine M. indica which were infested by Co. formosanus, and confirmed that Co. formosanus infested on the tree and found in the in-ground monitoring station were the same colony by termite-staining. Termite bait with 0.5% hexaflumuron was applied in the in-ground monitoring station where stained termite was present to control the termite colony that infested the tree. Of the nine trees, four trees were infested by one Co. formosanus colony separately; three trees were infested by one Co. formosanus colony at the same time; and the other two trees were suffered from multiple termite colonies simultaneously, one was infested by two colonies of Co. formosanus, and the other one was infested by Co. formosanus and Reticulitermes flaviceps Oshima. Each Co. formosanus-infested M. indica averagely used 6.9 ± 2.3 tubes of termite bait; each Co. formosanus colony averagely consumed about 5.3 ± 2.0 tubes of termite bait, namely 1.6 ± 0.6 g hexaflumuron. Each Co. formosanus colony that had fed bait was eliminated in 12.7 ± 7.2 weeks averagely. O. formosanus and R. flaviceps reinvaded in-ground monitoring stations and consumed remaining bait after Co. formosanus were eliminated. We could not confirm that whether the active ingredients of bait had effects on the O. formosanus colony in this study, but R. flaviceps was also eliminated in eight weeks after Co. formosanus was eliminated.
摘要 i
Abstract1 ii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii
List of Appendixes ix
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Definition and function of the urban forest 1
1.2. Termite infestations on trees 2
1.3. Termite research of urban old trees in Taiwan 3
1.4. Influencing factors of termite infestations on trees 3
1.5. Treatments for termite infestations on trees 4
1.6. Purpose of this study 5
2. Materials and methods 6
2.1. Surveyed trees 6
2.2. Termite infestation survey 6
2.3. Termite activity monitoring 7
2.4. Termite baiting 9
2.5. Statistical analysis 9
3. Results 11
3.1. Termite infestations and damage patterns 11
3.2. Termite infestations and influencing factors 12
3.3. Termite monitoring and baiting 14
4. Discussion 17
4.1. Differences of termite infestation rate 17
4.2. Termite species composition and hazard preference 19
4.3. Conditions and benefits of termite monitoring 21
4.4. Non-target termite species consumed termite bait 23
4.5. Main cost of the underground baiting system on termite-infested trees 24
5. Conclusion 26
List of reference 27
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