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研究生:王雅芳
研究生(外文):Ya-FangWang
論文名稱:台灣西南部垂直變形之時空變化
論文名稱(外文):Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Vertical Deformation in SW Taiwan
指導教授:饒瑞鈞饒瑞鈞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Juin Rau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:地球科學系碩士在職專班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:精密水準測量GPS泥貫入體台灣西南部
外文關鍵詞:Precise leveling measurementGPSMud diapirSW Taiwan
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台灣是由菲律賓海板塊與歐亞板塊擠壓而成,因此,帶來複雜的地底構造與地表變形,然而,斷層活動並非造成地表變形的唯一因素,根據地調所的一系列研究指出台灣西南部陸域確實有泥貫入體的存在,且與西南部外海之泥貫入體相連接。上述泥貫入體之位置與已知之背斜軸相同,再加上泥火山多分布在這些背斜軸附近,因此進一步探討台灣西南部陸域現今之地殼變形型態受到泥貫入體活動的影響程度。本研究先選擇距離各水準測線最近且品質較穩定之GPS連續站作為約制條件,透過各水準測線與GPS連續站垂直時間序列趨勢的相符程度。接著利用安平至龍崎、岡山至安坡、路竹至茂林等三條水準測線資料,觀察每次垂直變化趨勢,再利用迴歸分析的方法,以距離為權重,重新內插成資料間距相同的結果,以移動平均法的平滑化來進行高頻、低頻訊號分解,得到長期大地應力變化趨勢,最後,將內插法與移動平均法結果進行差值計算,所得之殘差,得以了解區域性的垂直變化型態,從同一區域在不同時期的重複觀測值,來探究各測線之時空分佈情況。結果顯示,GPS連續站資料較具連續性,而水準測量資料為每年一次測量結果,連續性較低,但精度較高,透過兩者時間序列變化趨勢,顯示兩者垂直變化大致呈一致性。於三條水準測線中,在跨越背斜軸位置有相對較大抬升量,以背斜軸為中心,向兩側逐漸下降,跨越背斜軸附近,垂直變化大致呈現抬升型態。濾除大地應力影響後,在台南背斜抬升量約3-8 mm/yr,2016年增至14 mm/yr;中洲背斜北段於2002年10月至2003年6月約5 mm/yr,中段約6-8 mm/yr;小崗山背斜約3-10 mm/yr;龍船斷層約5-10 mm/yr,2010年與2016年增至30 mm/yr,上訴抬升區域恰分布在泥貫入體位置。從GPS時間序列中,亦觀察到位在各測線附近GPS測站與水準點位之垂直變化趨勢一致。結合精密水準測量和GPS的結果顯示,垂直方向的變化趨勢除了受到大地應力、2010年甲仙地震與2016年美濃地震影響外,其抬升量為地底之泥貫入體作用之影響,尤其是在龍船斷層一帶,古亭坑泥岩層遍布,造成此區域極大的抬升量,最大可達約140 mm,因此推斷台灣西南部變形機制亦受泥貫入體作用影響。
According to a series of studies conducted by Central Geological Survey MOEA, it is pointed out that there is indeed a presence of mud diapir in SW Taiwan, and it is connected to the mud diapir in the SW sea, and the location of mud diapir is exactly at the known anticline axis. Based on the distribution of mud volcanoes in the vicinity of these anticlines, our purpose is to explore whether the current crustal deformation pattern in southwestern Taiwan is really affected by the penetration of the mud diapir activities? This study selected the GPS continuous station with stable quality and closest to each levelling routes which is used as a condition for the compliance. The reliability of the levelling data is confirmed by the coincidence degree of each levelling routes with the time series trend of the GPS continuous station. We used three levelling routes data of Anping-Longsaki, Luzhu-Maolin and Gangshan-Anpo to observe each vertical trend, and then use the method of regression analysis, with distance as the weighting, re-interpolation into the same data spacing, smoothing by moving average method for high frequency, low frequency signals. The signal is decomposed to obtain the long-term stress change trend. Finally, the difference between the interpolation method and the moving average method is calculated, and the residual is obtained. It is possible to understand regional elevation patterns and to explore the temporal and spatial distribution of each line from repeated observations of the same area at the different time period. The results show that the continuous station elevation and the time series of the precise level point are roughly consistent, confirming that the precise level data processing is correct. Among the three levelling lines, there is a relatively large amount of uplift across the anticline axis, centering on the anticline axis, gradually descending toward both sides, crossing the anticline axis, and the vertical variation is roughly elevated, eliminating the influence of regional stress. After that, the uplift in the Tainan anticline was about 3-8 mm/yr, and in 2016 it increased to 14 mm/yr; the northern section of the Zhongzhou anticline was about 5 mm/yr from October 2002 to June 2003, and the middle section was about 6- 8 mm/yr; Hsiaokangshan anticline is about 3-10 mm/yr; Longchuan faults is about 5-10 mm/yr, increased to 30 mm / yr in 2010 and 2016, and just in the position of the mud diapir. From the GPS time series, it is also observed that the vertical variation trend measured by the GPS station near each line is consistent with the level point result. Combined with the results of the precise levelling and global positioning system, the trend in the vertical direction is considered. In addition to the earth stress and the impact of 2010 Jiashian and the 2016 Meinong earthquake, it is also affected by mud diapir, especially Longchuan faults, where Gutingkeng Formation is scattered, resulting in large deformation in this area. The maximum lift is about 140 mm, so it is inferred that the southwestern Taiwan deformation mechanism is also subject to the influence of mud diapir.
摘要…… I
Extended English summary II
致謝…… XIII
目錄…… XIV
表目錄…. XVI
圖目錄…. XVII
第一章、緒論 1
第二章、研究區域及地質構造概述 5
2.1、台灣大地構造框架 5
2.2、台灣西南部之地層概述 10
2.3、活動斷層分佈 11
2.4、背斜分佈 12
2.5、泥火山及泥貫入體分布 14
第三章、研究資料與方法 16
3.1、研究資料來源 16
3.1.1、水準資料來源 16
3.1.2、GPS資料來源 17
3.2、GPS資料解算策略 18
3.3、精密水準測量原理 21
3.4、迴歸分析 22
第四章、研究結果 24
4.1、GPS時間序列 24
4.1.1、安平至龍崎測線 25
4.1.2、路竹至茂林測線 30
4.1.3、岡山至安坡測線 35
4.2、精密水準測量分析 39
4.2.1、縣182安平至龍崎測線 39
4.2.2、縣184路竹至茂林測線及其副線 55
4.2.3、台22岡山至安坡測線 69
第五章、討論 79
5-1、GPS與精密水準測量所得之垂直向資料比較 79
5-2、台灣西南部變形機制 81
第六章、結論 86
第七章、參考文獻 88
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