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研究生:邱庭偉
研究生(外文):Ting-WeiChiu
論文名稱:自走車路口指揮系統
論文名稱(外文):Intersection Guiding System for Robot Cars
指導教授:林穎裕林穎裕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ying-Yu Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:航空太空工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:路口行車指揮監控系統道路規劃路口指揮器路口行車模擬器軟體CCD攝影機
外文關鍵詞:regulator systemland traffic managementregulatorsimulation programCCD camera
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本研究主要提出一套簡單、安全、可行的路口行車指揮監控系統,供未來自動化路上交通運輸與道路規劃之參考。系統包含1. 監控中心,2.路口指揮器,及3.自走車三個部分。研究設計重點在路口道路規劃,行車指揮器實現,與無人駕駛自走車製作。路口以內外雙環平面連接四條不同方向道路,作為多輛自走車會車通道,並參考環型道路交叉交通指揮準則,推導行車指揮演算法,即時以號誌行控進入路口的自走車,紓解路口的壅塞或是加速穿行。本研究同時撰製路口行車模擬器軟體,模擬指揮多部自走車由各道路進入與離開路口的情況,取得行車流量的參考數據。路口指揮器以WIFI透過網路與遠端監控中心聯結,讓監控人員即時得到各輛自走車進入與離開路口的資訊。為驗證所提方法之可行性,另製做一台具備接受路口指揮器指令的自走車,能夠以紅外線感測裝置達成循軌與避障的功能,利用CCD攝影機與影像分析程式認取目標並了別目標號誌,以無線通訊模組報知路口指揮器自走車車號以及位置,並報知遠端監控中心自走車的行車資訊,實際驗證路口指揮器之功能與分析各種行車法則。
This thesis proposes a simple, safe, and practical regulator system to guide and monitor robot cars passing through roads intersection efficiently. It can be a useful reference for future automatic transportation on land traffic management. The complete system includes three parts, the traffic surveillance center, the intersection regulator, and the automatic robot cars, and they shall work closely together to achieve the purpose. To focus the investigation on the ground situations, the study emphasizes on the design and buildup of the last two items. The intersection is designed with two-land traffics in concentric circles at the crossing of two two-lane roads, which are perpendicular to each other. The regulator receives and records info reported by each car right before its arrival at one of the four entrances of the intersection through WIFI network. Then, according to the car stream inside the intersection, the number of cars waiting outside of the entrances, and the guiding rules, the regulator determines and directs the cars when to enter into the intersection through traffic lights at the entrances. A simulation program is also developed for the purposes of designing and analyzing the effectiveness of the guiding rules for passing through the intersection. It can select random number of cars for the simulation, displays the movements of all the cars in animation, and records the total passing time of each car. To verify and enhance the applicability of the study, a robot car is built to equip with WIFI communication device, sending its information such as ID number, location, and collision accidence inside the intersection to the regulator. Also, it can follow the tracking mark on the ground, detect obstacles around the car, identify traffic symbol captured by CCD camera onboard. Simulation and hardware experiment results indicate that the proposed system for intersection crossing can be an efficient method on automatic transportation in the future.
中文摘要...............................................i
英文摘要..............................................ii
致謝.................................................vii
目錄................................................viii
表目錄................................................xi
圖目錄..............................................xiii
第一章 緒論............................................1
1.1研究動機.....................................1
1.2文獻回顧.....................................1
1.3論文架構.....................................3

第二章 路口指揮系統與模擬器..............................4
2.1 系統藍圖及研究範圍..................................4
2.1.1 路口道路之參考................................4
2.1.2 路口道路之設計.........................7
2.1.3 路口指揮器與自走車之功能與需求..........10
2.1.4 監控中心之任務.........................11
2.2 路口指揮器規則模式..................................11
2.3 利用軟體程式建立計算邏輯與顯示動畫....................12
2.4 路口模擬行車方式分析.................................24

第三章 路口控制器軟硬體建構..............................34
3.1 控制器模組化設計.............................34
3.2 控制流程與決策樹.............................36
3.3 指揮硬體說明.................................37

第四章 自走車系統架構...................................41
4.1 車體架構及功能模組...........................41
4.2 資料處理模組........................................43
4.3 無線傳輸模組.................................48
4.4 環境感測模組.................................49
4.5 影像辨識模組.................................55
4.6 動力驅動模組.................................58
4.6.1 馬達與驅動晶片.........................58
4.6.2 電源供應器............................61
4.7 操作流程及系統線路圖.........................63

第五章 影像處理步驟.....................................65
5.1 影像處理流程........................65
5.2 全彩影像擷取與轉換..................65
5.2.1 色彩模型介紹..........................65
5.2.2 圖片像素及閥值設定.....................67
5.3 目標與背景分離......................69
5.4 影像雜訊去除........................70
5.4.1 侵蝕膨脹法.............................70
5.4.2 影像標註法.............................71
5.5 目標中心計算及號誌辨識...............71
5.6 目標號誌判斷........................72
5.7 影像追蹤訊號演算....................73

第六章 實驗與分析.......................................77
6.1 Case1 實驗記錄與分析................77
6.2 Case2 實驗記錄與分析................81
6.3 Case3 實驗記錄與分析................87
6.4 結果分析...........................90

第七章 結論與未來展望...................................91
7.1 結論...............................91
7.2 未來展望....................................91

參考文獻...............................................92
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[2] Design of Smart Traffic Light Controller Using Embedded System,2013
[3] A cooperative route choice approach via virtual vehicle in IoV,2017
[4] Internet of agents framework for connected vehicles,2018
[5] Proof of Concept of Embedded Solution in Auto-Navigation Destination and Vehicle Collision
Avoidance,2012
[6] A predictive accident-duration based decision-making module for rerouting in environments with V2V
communication,2017
[7] Smarter and more connected: Future intelligent transportation system,2018
[8] Estimated Benefits of Connected Vehicle Applications,2015
[9] IoV distributed architecture for real-time traffic data analytics,2018
[10] Cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections in internet of vehicles,2018
[11] Traffic flow optimization in presence of vehicle automation and communication systems,2015
[12] Road safety effects of roundabouts: A meta-analysis,2017
[13] safety of roundabouts,2000
[14] Impacts of roundabouts on urban air quality,2018
[15] Efficiency Analysis of Roundabout with Traffic Signals,2017
[16] Analyses of maximum-speed path definition at single-lane roundabouts,2018
[17] Parametric-based path generation for automated vehicles at roundabouts,2017
[18] A cellular automata model for urban traffic with multiple roundabouts,2018
[19] roundabout history, wiki
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