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研究生:魏良安
研究生(外文):Wei, Liang-An
論文名稱:漢語「來」、「給」目的句之研究
論文名稱(外文):Lai and Gei Purposives in Mandarin Chinese
指導教授:劉啟明劉啟明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu, Chi-Ming
口試委員:王乾安劉辰生
口試委員(外文):Wang, Chyan-AnLiu, Chen-Sheng
口試日期:2018-09-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系外國文學與語言學碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:目的句功能投射語法化述謂結構漢語
外文關鍵詞:Purposive clauseFunctional projectionGrammaticalizationPredicationChinese
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本論文探討漢語「來」與「給」目的句之句型與結構。Jones (1991)認為英文目的
句是由不定詞子句(infinitival clause)和主要謂語所組成,藉此表達目的之意。本論
文先回顧了Liao & Lin (2018)、Huang & Ahrens (1999)、 Ting & Chang (2004), 以
及Lin & Huang (2015)的研究。他們認為「來」目的句是由一個主要子句和一個
由「來」當中心語的CP 所組成的,而在「給」目的句中的「給」則是被分析成
介系詞或是動詞。透過把時間副詞、疑問副詞與情態動詞加入到「來」與「給」
目的句的測試,我們得知「來」之後的詞組應該是小於IP,而「給」後面的詞組
則是大於VP。此外,由於現代漢語不允許向右架接(right-adjunction),並考量到
目的句並非是主要動詞的補語,因此,我利用Den Dikken (2006)的架構,認為主
詞與謂語間有個關係者(Relator)元素來做為連接它們的橋樑,使謂語的語意屬性
能傳遞給位於主詞位置的詞組,進而把整個句子的意思呈現出來。本文認為「來」
是一個顯性並帶有目的性語意的關係者元素,它將左側和右側詞組連接起來,使
得右邊詞組成為左邊子句之目的。而「給」目的句則是由一個隱性的關係者元素,
將左側子句,以及「給」所引介的致使句所連接而成。這項分析也從「來-給」目
的句的句法分析得到證明。簡而言之,透過關係者元素的出現,我們更能夠解釋
「來」與「給」前後詞組的句法和語意關係。
This thesis aims to investigate the structures of lai and gei purposives in Mandarin Chinese.
Jones (1991) notes that purpose clauses are formed with the addition of an infinitival adjunct
clause, which serves to modify the main predicate to express an intention. This thesis starts
with a discussion on earlier works that investigate Mandarin purposive constructions, such as
Liao & Lin (2018), Huang & Ahrens (1999), Ting & Chang (2004), and Lin & Huang (2015).
They propose that a lai-purposive construction is composed of a main clause and a CP, which
is headed by lai, and consider the gei in gei-purposives either a verb or a preposition. Given
the (in)compatibility between modals, temporal adverbs as well as interrogative wh-phrases
and lai/gei purposives, I propose that the constituent following lai should be smaller than IP
while the one following gei is larger than VP. Moreover, since Mandarin Chinese does not
allow right adjunction, and the purposive part of a sentence does not seem to be syntactically
selected by the main verb, I build my analysis on Den Dikken (2006)’s idea that there is a
Relator which mediates two syntactic constituents, and the predicate ascribes a property to the
subject. I propose that the lai in the lai-purposives is an overt Relator, which needs to take
constituents preceding and following it as its arguments. As for gei-purposives, I propose that
a covert Relator exists in this construction, which mediates between the CP preceding gei and
the predicate vP that follows gei. This analysis is evidenced by the fact that this covert Relator
sometimes can be overtly realized as lai, which gives rise to lai-gei purposives, whose
meaning is similar to that of gei-purposives. In other words, through the postulation of the
existence of a Relator in Mandarin purposive constructions, we can account for not only the
syntactic relation between the constituents preceding and following it but also the emergence
of the purposive meaning in such sentences.
摘 要 ................................................................................................................ I
Abstract ............................................................................................................. II
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................... III
Table of Contents ............................................................................................. IV
1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 1
2. Literature Review ...................................................................................... 6
2.1. Lai-Purposives .................................................................................................... 6
2.2. Gei-Purposives ................................................................................................. 14
2.2.1. Huang & Ahrens (1999) ........................................................................ 16
2.2.2. Ting & Chang (2004) ............................................................................ 18
2.2.3. Lin & Huang (2015) .............................................................................. 22
3. Analysis .................................................................................................... 31
3.1. Analysis of lai-purposives ................................................................................ 31
3.2. Analysis of gei-purposives ................................................................................ 43
3.2.1. Previous accounts of gei-purposive clauses ........................................... 43
3.2.2. Lai-purposives vs. gei-purposives.......................................................... 45
3.2.3. The Post-gei constituent is an IP ............................................................ 49
3.2.4. On gei ................................................................................................... 53
3.2.5. The structure of gei-purposive clauses ................................................... 55
3.3. Lai-gei purposives ............................................................................................ 62
4. Conclusion ................................................................................................ 68
References:...................................................................................................... 71
Den Dikken, M. (2006). Relators and linkers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Her, O.-S. (2006). Justifying part-of-speech assignments for Mandarin gei. Lingua, 116(8), 1274-1302.
Huang, C.-R., & Kathleen Ahrens. (1999). The function and category of gei in Mandarin ditransitive constructions. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 27(2), 1-26.
Huang, Y.-S. (2010). A Generalized-Ditransitive Analysis for Gei in Mandarin Chinese. MA thesis, National Tsing Hua University.
Jones, C. (2012). Purpose clauses: Syntax, thematics, and semantics of English purpose constructions (Vol. 47): Springer Science & Business Media.
Liao, W.-W. R., & T.-H. J Lin. (2018). Syntactic Structures of Mandarin Purposives. Maunscript.
Lin, J.-W. (1992). The syntax of zenmeyang ‘how’and weishenme ‘why’in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 1(3), 293-331.
Lin, T.-H. J. (2009). Parameterizing complementation. UST Working Papers in Linguistics, Graduate Institute of Linguistics, 5, 89-105.
Lin, T.-H. J., & Y.-S Huang. (2015). Structures of the Mandarin gei constructions. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 24(3), 309-338.
Paul, W. (1988). The purposive gei-clause in Chinese. Cahiers de Linguistique-Asie Orientale, 17(1), 25-65.
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Ting, J., & Miller Chang. (2004). The category of gei in Mandarin Chinese and grammaticalization. Taiwan Journal of Linguistics, 2(2), 45-73.
Tsai, W.-T. D. (2008). Left periphery and how-why alternations. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 17(2), 83.
Tsai, W.-T. D. (2017). On Split Affectivity in Chinese. Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies, 47(2), 407-432.
Tsai, W.-T. D. (2018). High applicatives are not high enough: A cartographic solution. Lingua 72 Sinica, 4(1), 2.
Tsai, W.-T. D., & Barry Chung-yu Yang. (2008). On the Fine Structure of Applicatives and Their Licensing Conditions. http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~ctjhuan/NTNU/TsaiYang_2008_applicatives.pdf
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Whelpton, M. (2002). Locality and control with infinitives of result. Natural Language Semantics, 10(3), 167-210.
Zhang, S. (1990). Correlations between the double object construction and preposition stranding. Linguistic Inquiry, 21(2), 312-316.
黄正德 (2007) 汉语动词的题元结构与其句法表现, 语言科学,第 4 期,3-21 頁。
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蔡維天 (2005) 談漢語的蒙受結構, 動詞與賓語問題國際學術研討會, 華中師範大學,中國。
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