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研究生:方歐華
研究生(外文):Oswald Shreeves
論文名稱:在巴拿馬擴大清潔能源:通過清潔能源為巴拿馬經濟做出貢獻
論文名稱(外文):Improving the Efficiency in the Electrical Production and Distribution while contributing to the Panamanian Economy through Clean Energy
指導教授:唐瓔璋唐瓔璋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tang, Yingchan Edwin
口試委員:Mei Fang Chen
口試日期:2018-09-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:企業管理碩士學程
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:54
中文關鍵詞:清潔能源
外文關鍵詞:Clean Energy
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在過去幾年中,全球變暖的影響變得更加明顯,給世界各國帶來了一系列複雜情況。然而就巴拿馬而言,不僅在氣候變化方面存在一些困難,而且在“厄爾尼諾”旱季期間,政府和私營實體對於水的低水位表示擔憂。在這些時期的大壩,其中一個省份的發電廠產生的污染對其居民造成直接的負面影響,並且在其他省份內發生停電事件的飆升,因此在不久的將來會導致更嚴重的變化,如:用水量“短缺/配給”,停電“造成電網問題”,最終可能在“巴拿馬運河/地方商業/國家形象”中引起明顯的經濟影響。在過去的幾周裡,兩個主要城市之間出現了大規模的停電,這使得這些問題更加明顯。
我的觀點是,該國需要尋找新的替代方案,我將從中分享這一新的清潔能源倡議。
For the last years the effect of Global warming has become more evident, generating a series of complications for countries all over the world. However in the case of Panama, there has been some difficulties not only in regards to the climate change, but during the dry season “El Nino” where as to the Government & Private entities have expressed their concern as to the low water levels from the dam during these periods, contamination generated by a power plant in one of the provinces causing a direct negative impact to its residents and a spike on blackouts incidents spread out within other provinces, which consequently in the near future will lead to more drastic changes such as: water consumption “shortage / rationing”, blackouts “causing problems with power grids”, and finally could cause noticeable economic repercussion in the “Panama Canal Operation / Local Business / Image of the country”. In the last few weeks there has been large blackouts between the two main cities, which has made these matter even more visible.
My opinion is that the country needs to search for a new alternative, from which I will like to share this new Clean Energy Initiative.
Chapter 1 - Introduction 1
Chapter 2 - Research & Contribution 2
2.1 Short Term Solution (Business Plan) 2
2.2 Long Term Goal: 3
2.3 PANAMA’S PROBLEM WITH THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OVER THE RECENT YEARS 4
Chapter 3 - Market Overview Panama Energetic Structure 7
Generation 7
Transmission 7
Distribution 7
3.1 Market Share of the Electrical Distribution system in Panama 9
3.2 Meteorological Data 11
3.3 Understanding Solar Energy and how to measure it 17
3.4 (Electric Units) 17
3.5 Subsidies 18
3.6 How would the Solar Panel Work? 18
3.7 Understanding the Fundamental of Photovoltaic Energy 18
3.8 Conversion Efficiency 20
3.9 Measuring the Expected Energy Production 22
3.10 Measuring the amount of System required for my Target Customers 23
3.11 Central America Interconnection Grid 24
Chapter 4 - Company Overview 28
4.1 Vision 30
Mission 30
4.2 My Target Market Statistics 30
4.3 Total Income Level divided by Provinces 30
Occupation Status Categorize by Provinces 32
Total type of Material used on rooftop in Panama per Provinces 32
4.4 Amount of people with second Homes 33
4.5 Panama Monthly Electric Bill Distribution 34
4.6 Strategy 35
4.7 Resources, Capabilities, & Core Competencies 35
1. Marketing and Sales: 35
2. Operations: 35
3. Services (Reputational Resources – Intangible/Tangible): 35
4.8 Strategic Action: 36
4.9 SWOT ANALYSIS 36
4.9.1 Strength: 37
4.9.2 Opportunity: 37
4.9.3 Weakness: 38
4.9.4 Threat: 38
4.10 Energy Production Estimation 38
First Stage Group 40
4.11 Business Model Canvas 41
4.12 Business Model Detailed Description 42
4.12.1 Customer Segments 42
4.12.2 Value Proposition 42
4.12.3 Channels 42
4.12.4 Customer Relationship 43
4.12.5 Revenue Stream 43
4.12.6 Key Resources 43
4.12.7 Key Activities 44
4.12.8 Key Partners 44
4.12.9 Cost Structure 44
4.13 Financials 44
4.13.1 Breakdown of the Revenue 45
4.13.2 Detailed Cost of Equipment 46
Chapter 5 - Solution 47
Chapter 6 - Conclusion 49
Bibliography 50
Works Cited 50
Annex 52

List of Tables
Table 1 Panama Photovoltaic Potential 17
Table 2 Panamanian Electricity of Price per Consumption 17
Table 3 Subsidies Table 18
Table 4 Efficiency of Solar Cells 20
Table 5 Energy Imports in percentage produce 26
Table 6 Central America Electricity Indicators 27
Table 7 Occupation Status by Provinces 32
Table 8 People in Panama with Second Homes 33
Table 9 Panamanians Monthly Electricity bill Classified by consumption 34
Table 10 Energy Production Estimation 39
Table 11 First Stage Photovoltaic Capacity 40
Table 12 Projected Revenue 45
Table 13 Revenue Breakdown 45
Table 14 Revenue Breakdown 46
Table 15 Other Central American Countries Electricity Price Range per Consumption 46

List of Figures
Figure 1 Benefits for the different social groups 3
Figure 2 Market Share of the Distributing Companies 9
Figure 3 Panama Local Grid Inter-Connection 10
Figure 4 Map of Panama 11
Figure 5 Average Rainfall in Panama per Year 12
Figure 6 Average Cloud and Humidity Yearly Percentage 13
Figure 7 Panama Sun Hours per Year 13
Figure 8 United States PV Levels 14
Figure 9 Panama Normal Irradiance Level 15
Figure 10 Panama Photovoltaic Potential 16
Figure 11 Panama Annual Photovoltaic Potential 16
Figure 12 Sun's Positions during the Year 19
Figure 13 Summer Solstice 20
Figure 14 Inverter Life Cycle 21
Figure 15 Type of Electric Current 22
Figure 16 Energy equivalent in fuel per galon 23
Figure 17 MER - Central-American Grid Inter-Connection 25
Figure 18 Income Level by Rank 31
Figure 19 Map of Panama Indicating first five provinces to start this business 31
Figure 22 SWOT Analysis 36
Figure 25 Business Model Canvas 41
References

ASEP. (2018, 03 20). Autoridad Nacional de los Servicios Publicos. Retrieved from ASEP: https://www.asep.gob.pa/?page_id=11773
Contraloría General. (2014). Contraloría General de la República. Retrieved from http://estadisticas.contraloria.gob.pa/inec/cgi-bin/RpWebEngine.exe/Portal?&BASE=LP2010&MAIN=WebServerMain_censos.inl
Díaz, Juan . (2015, June 15). They present complaint for contamination of thermoelectric in La Chorrera. Retrieved from https://www.prensa.com/judiciales/Presentan-denuncia-contaminacion-termoelectrica-Chorrera_0_4232576922.html
Interconnection, R. C. (2018). SIEPAC. Retrieved from Regional Commission for Electrical Interconnection : http://crie.org.gt/wp/
Jordán, Wilfredo. (2017, 11 16). Level of the lakes of the Channel is 'critical', despite rain. Retrieved from La Prensa: https://impresa.prensa.com/panorama/Nivel-lagos-Canal-critico-lluvias_0_4896260331.html
Jordán, Wilfredo. (2017, 10 26). Reform in generation creates tension in the sector. Retrieved from La Prensa: https://impresa.prensa.com/economia/Reforma-generacion-crea-tension-sector_0_4879762085.html
Martínez, Aris. (2014, 07 29). Panama takes measures to overcome the energy crisis. Retrieved from http://laestrella.com.pa/economia/panama-toma-medidas-para-sortear-crisis-energetica/23790846
Meléndez, José. (2013, May 11). La crisis de energía en Panamá afecta la actividad del canal. Retrieved from El Pais: https://elpais.com/internacional/2013/05/11/actualidad/1368280949_835454.html
MELÉNDEZ, José. (2013, 05 11). The energy crisis in Panama affects the activity of the channel. Retrieved from https://elpais.com/internacional/2013/05/11/actualidad/1368280949_835454.html
PVWatts Calculator. (2018). Retrieved from National Renewable Energy Laboratory: https://pvwatts.nrel.gov/pvwatts.php
Rodríguez P. Mirta. (2017, 08 24). The energy supply in Panama grows less this year 2017. Retrieved from La Estrella de Panama: http://laestrella.com.pa/economia/oferta-
The World Factbook . (2018, 07 12). Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency: https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pm.html

Journal Articles
Argote, R. (2016). 100 AÑOS DE HISTORIA DE LOS SERVICIOS PUBLICOS DE ELECTRICIDAD EN LA REPÚBLICA DE PANAMA. Panama.
Feldman David, Hoskins Jack, Margolis Robert. (2018). Solar Industry Update. Q4 2017/Q1 2018 Solar Industry Update, 54 - 72.
Mooney, B. S. (2018). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Rooftop Solar Technical Potential for Low-to-Moderate Income Households in the United States , 56.
Philipp Beiter, N. V. (2016). 2016 Renewable Energy. 2016 Renewable Energy Grid Integration Data Book, 37 - 60.
Sigrin, B. a. (2018, April). National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy publications. Retrieved from National Renewable Energy Laboratory Archives
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