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研究生:李庭毅
研究生(外文):Lee, Ting-Yi
論文名稱:輪胎縱向摩擦力估測及控制法則之實驗驗證
論文名稱(外文):Experimental Verification on the Estimation and Control Laws of Longitudinal Tire Forces
指導教授:蕭得聖
指導教授(外文):Hsiao, Te-Sheng
口試委員:陳宗麟陳柏全李綱
口試委員(外文):Chen, Tsung-LinChen, Bo-ChiuanLee, Kang
口試日期:2018-10-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電控工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:輪胎縱向摩擦力估測輪胎縱向摩擦力控制輪胎實驗平台
外文關鍵詞:Longitudinal Tire ForcesExperimental platformEstimation and Control of Tire Forces
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隨著車輛的普及,汽車顯然成為人類生活中重要的一部份,近年來越來越多的國內外車廠以及學者們致力於各種車輛安全系統的研發。然而許多學術研究僅以軟體模擬驗證車輛控制系統的效能,但模擬環境與真實世界之間仍有差距,模擬驗證的成功僅是通過初步測試,不代表最終實際在車輛上的控制效能可達到所需規格,這因為從軟體模擬端進行到實車測試端時增加了系統的複雜度與不確定性,容易導致實驗的失敗。因此若能在實驗室建構一簡單的實驗平台,其中包括車輛控制系統中所需測試的部分硬體,進行更為貼近真實系統的實驗驗證,彌補軟體模擬到實車測試之間的差距,雖不能完全取代真實車輛的功能,但能縮短最後實車測試的時程,並提高車輛控制系統的成功率。
故本研究針對輪胎縱向摩擦力的估測與控制法則,設計與建構一個僅有單一輪胎的實驗平台,可在平台上模擬不同的輪胎轉速與車速來產生不同的滑動比,進而使輪胎縱向摩擦力產生變化。利用力感測器直接量測輪胎力量,並以馬達控制輪胎轉矩實現及驗證輪胎縱向摩擦力估測與控制法則。該實驗平台中所需的各項設備如馬達和感測器的價格皆適中,整體平台不佔空間,適合學術界開發與測試各項與輪胎摩擦力相關之控制與估測系統。
Longitudinal tire forces is an important information for vehicular active safety systems. Due to increasingly demanding requirements for driving safety, more and more vehicle control systems have been developed. Many academic studies rely only on software simulations to verify the performance of vehicle control systems; however, the success of simulation verification does not guarantee that the design specifications are satisfied in the real world because of the tremendously increasing complexity and uncertainty form simulations to full-vehicle tests. Therefore, building an experimental platform is essential to reduce the gap between the software simulation and the real vehicle test.
In this thesis, we aimed at experimentally verifying the estimation and control laws of longitudinal tires forces. We design an experimental platform with a single tire which can simulate different tire speeds and vehicle speeds to generate different slip-ratios and longitudinal tire forces. A force sensor is installed to measure the tire forces directly, and a servo motor controls the wheel torque to realize and verify the longitudinal tire force estimation and control laws. The components in the experimental platform, such as the motors and the sensors are cost effective, and the overall platform is less space demanding. It is suitable for the development and testing of various tire force control and estimation systems in the lab.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
符號表 xii

第一章、緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究貢獻 3
1.4 論文架構 4

第二章、相關研究 5
2.1 輪胎縱向摩擦力估測及控制相關研究 5
2.2 力感測器使用及輪胎硬體實驗相關研究 9
2.3 文獻討論 10

第三章、車輛系統模型 12
3.1 輪胎動態模型 12
3.1 輪胎模型 14
3.2.1 Magic formula 14
3.2.2 Dugoff tire model 16
3.2.3輪胎模型間的差異 17

第四章、輪胎縱向摩擦力估側及控制系統 18
4.1 以輪速差分估測輪胎縱向摩擦力 19
4.2 穩健輪胎縱向摩擦力估測器 20
4.3 輪胎縱向摩擦力控制器 25

第五章、硬體架構設計 28
5.1 輪胎實驗平台 28
5.1.1 dSPACE控制器 29
5.1.2 直流無刷馬達 31
5.1.3 伺服馬達 33
5.1.4 三軸力感測器 35
5.2 力量量測震動問題 37
5.2.1 低通濾波器 37
5.2.2 適應性陷波濾波器 40

第六章、模擬及實驗結果 47
6.1 車輛動態設計 47
6.1.1 輪胎動態控制 47
6.1.2 車體動態控制 50
6.2 系統模擬架構設計 50
6.2.1 滑動比與輪胎縱向摩擦力關係之實驗 50
6.2.2 估測器與控制器參數設定 53
6.2.3 完整系統模擬架構 54
6.3 系統模擬 55
6.4 實驗結果 58

第七章、結論與未來展望 65
7.1 結論 65
7.2 未來展望 66
參考文獻 68
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[2] O. Mokhiamar and M. Abe, “How the Four Wheels Should Share Forces in an Optimum Cooperative Chassis Control,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 14, pp.295-304, 2006.
[3] L. Li, et al., “Integrated Longitudinal and Lateral Tire/Road Friction Modeling and Monitoring for Vehicle Motion Control,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 7, pp. 1-19, Mar. 2006.
[4] H. B. Pacejka and E. Bakker, “The Magic Formula Tyre Model,” Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 21, pp. 1-18, 1993.
[5] H. Lee and M. Tomizuka, “Adapted Vehicle Traction Force Control for Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHSs),” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, pp. 37-47, Feb. 2003.
[6] M. Kabganian and R. Kazemi, “A New Strategy for Traction Control in Turning Via Engine Modeling,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 50, pp.1540-1548, Nov. 2001.
[7] T. Hsiao, “Robust Estimation and Control of Tire Traction Forces,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, no. 3, March. 2003.
[8] L.-Y. Hsu and T.-L. Chen, “An Optimal Wheel Torque Distribution Controller for Automated Vehicle Trajectory Following,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, No. 6, July. 2013.
[9] C.-C. Wang, S.-Y. Cheng, T. Hsiao, and W.-Y. Chou, “Application of Optimum Tire Force Distribution to Vehicle Motion Control,” in Proc. IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. Adv. Intell. Mechatron., Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2012, pp. 538-543.
[10] 王俊傑, “運用最佳化輪胎力量分配於前輪轉向/後輪驅動車輛之運動控制,” 國立
交通大學,碩士論文,2012。
[11] K. S. Han, E. Lee, M. Choi, S. B. Choi, “Adaptive Scheme for the Real-Time Estimation of Tire-Road Friction Coefficient and Vehicle Velocity," in IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics , vol. 22, no.4, August. 2017.
[12] M. Tanelli, C. Vecchio, M. Corno, A. Ferrara, and S. M. Savaresi, “Traction Control for Ride-by-wire Sport Motorcycles: A Second-order Sliding Mode Approach,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.56, no. 9, pp. 3347-3356, Sep. 2009.
[13] G. A. Magallan, C. H. De Angelo, and G. O. Garcia, “Maximization of Traction Forces in a 2WD Electric Vehicle,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 369-380, Feb. 2011.
[14] Kanghyun Nam, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Yoichi Hori, “Advanced Motion Control of Electric Vehicles Based on Robust Lateral Tire Force Control via Active Front Steering,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol.19, no. 1, pp. 289-299, Feb. 2014.
[15] Y. Zhang, T. Yi, “Static Tire/road Stick-slip Interactions: Analysis and Experiments,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 19, no. 6, Dec. 2014.
[16] Y. Zhang, A. W. Allen, J. Yi, and T. Liu, “Understanding Tire/road Stick-slip Interactions with Embedded Rubber Force Sensors,” in Proc. IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. Adv. Intell. Mechatronics, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2012, pp. 550-555.
[17] W. Cho, J. Toon, S. Yim, B. Koo, and K. Yi, “Estimation of Tire Forces for Application to Vehicle Stability Control,” IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, vol. 59, no. 2, Feb. 2010, pp. 638-649.
[18] A. Rezaeian, et al., “Novel Tire Force Estimation Strategy for Real-time Implementation on Vehicle Applications,” IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, vol. 564, no. 6, June. 2015, pp. 2231-2241.
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