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研究生:張玾源
研究生(外文):Felix Hartantio
論文名稱:基於耳蝸內電位測量的個人化人工耳蝸電阻抗網路
論文名稱(外文):A Local Iterative Optimization Scheme for Patient-Specific Cochlear Implant Impedance Network Based on Intracochlear Potential Measurements
指導教授:蔡德明蔡德明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Choi, Charles T.M.
口試委員:楊順聰雷曉方
口試委員(外文):Young, Shuenn TsongLei, Sheau Fang
口試日期:107-07-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:生醫工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:生醫工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:人工耳蝸電場成像組織電阻抗模型目前的分佈
外文關鍵詞:Cochlear ImplantElectrical Field ImagingTissue Electrical Impedance ModelCurrent DistributionCochlear Prosthesis
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人工耳蝸(CI)是一種治療患有嚴重聽力損失的手術。該過程需要在耳蝸內植入刺激裝置。由於每位患者俱有獨特的耳蝸形態和不同的電極位置,這將對我們控制耳蝸內電流的能力造成一些限制,進而可能導致不良的電刺激性能。為了解決這個問題,需要患者的特定模型來促進設備裝配和參數調整。然而,電極周圍的電阻抗和電流具體的分佈是未知的。直到今天,臨床上已經能夠使用電場成像(EFI)來偵測可能發生的問題,但是此方法只能粗略地檢查問題。 本論文的目的是提供一種患者特定的電阻抗網絡。過去曾有些方法可以估計組織電阻抗模型的參數(rLlongitudinal,rTranversal和ZInterface)。但這些方法無法找到所有所需的參數。在本文中,為了估計最優化參數,我們提出了一種迭代算法。本論文還推導出一種基於臨床試驗的新規則,該規則能夠對優化效果有顯著的提升。為了提高準確性,我們使用遺傳演算法,再次進行優化。最後,我們還提出了一種新的優化算法NESEM,可以從EFI中求解非線性方程,並取得最優參數。最後,我們可以根據優化的參數(rLongitudinal,rTransversal和ZInterface)創建患者特定的電阻抗網絡。
Cochlear implant (CI) is a procedure to treat people with profound hearing loss. This procedure required to implant a stimulating device inside the cochlea. As each patient has unique cochlear morphology and different electrodes position, its causing some limitations in our ability to control the intracochlear current flow. This problem could result into a poor electrical stimulation performance. To tackle this, a patient’s specific model is needed to facilitate device fitting and parameter adjustment. However, the specific configuration of electrical impedances and current distributions around the electrode is unknown. Until this day, Electrical field imaging (EFI) have been used by the clinicians to find any occurred problems, but this approach only gave a rough finding of the problem.

The purpose of this thesis is to provide a patient specific electrical impedance network. Previously, there are some method that can estimate the parameters (rLongitudinal, rTranversal, and ZInterface) of tissue electrical impedance model. However, these methods cannot find all the parameters needed. In this thesis, to estimate optimal parameters, we propose an iterative

algorithm. A new rule based on clinical trials were derived and significantly improve the optimization. To improve the accuracy more, a global optimization, Genetic Algorithm, were used to explore more optimum space. Lastly, we also proposed a new optimization algorithm called NESEM, which solved the nonlinear equations from EFI to acquire the optimal parameters. With these optimal parameters (rLongitudinal, rTransversal, and ZInterface) we can create a patient specific electrical impedance network.
摘要 ..................................................................................................................................... i
Abstract ...............................................................................................................................iii
Acknowledgments .............................................................................................................. v
Contents ............................................................................................................................. vi
List of Figures .................................................................................................................... ix
List of Tables .................................................................................................................... xiii

Chapter 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Motivation............................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Thesis Organization .............................................................................................. 2

Chapter 2 Background Research ........................................................................................ 3
2.1 Normal Hearing Mechanism................................................................................. 3
2.2 Cochlear Implant (CI) ........................................................................................... 5
2.3 Equipment of Clinical Measurement .................................................................... 6
2.4 Electrode Configurations ...................................................................................... 8
2.5 Electrical Field Imaging and Modeling (EFIM) ................................................... 9
2.6 Tissue Impedance Model .................................................................................... 11
2.7 Potential Extraction ............................................................................................ 12
2.8 Impedance Model ............................................................................................... 13
2.9 Error calculation ................................................................................................. 14
2.10 Problem Statement ............................................................................................ 17

Chapter 3 Previous Method .............................................................................................. 18
3.1 Electrical Field Imaging Optimization Method (EFIOM) .................................. 18
3.1.1 Mathematical Matrix of Tissue Impedance Network .............................................. 18
3.1.2 Optimization........................................................................................................ 19
3.2 Bipolar Subtraction Method (BSM) ................................................................... 20
3.2.1 Bipolar-plus-two Impedance ................................................................................. 20
3.2.2 Bipolar-plus-one Impedance ................................................................................. 21
3.2.3 Current in Longitudinal and Transversal Direction .................................................. 21
3.3 EFIOM – BSM Hybrid Method.......................................................................... 23
3.3.1 Optimization........................................................................................................ 24

Chapter 4 Proposed Method ............................................................................................. 25
4.1 Local 1 Sensitivity Iterative Algorithm .............................................................. 25
4.2 Local Recursive 1-Sensititivity Iterative Algorithm ........................................... 35
4.3 Local 1 Sensitivity Iterative Algorithm with Upper Bound................................ 37
4.3.1 Upper Bound ....................................................................................................... 37
4.3.2 Optimization........................................................................................................ 39
4.4 Local Recursive 1-Sensitivity Iterative Algorithm with Upper Bound .............. 39
4.5 Nonlinear Equation based on Selective EFI Measurement (NESEM) ............... 39
4.6 Genetic Algorithm .............................................................................................. 43
4.7 Summary of methods .......................................................................................... 45

Chapter 5 Results .............................................................................................................. 49
5.1 RMSE comparison .............................................................................................. 49
5.2 EFIOM and HM.................................................................................................. 49
5.2.1 Tissue Impedance ................................................................................................ 49
5.2.2 EFI Error .............................................................................................................. 52
5.3 Iterative algorithm .............................................................................................. 54
5.3.1 Tissue Impedance ................................................................................................ 54
5.3.2 EFI Error .............................................................................................................. 56
5.4 Iterative Algorithm and Upper Bound ................................................................ 59
5.4.1 Tissue Impedance ................................................................................................ 59
5.4.2 EFI Error .............................................................................................................. 61
5.5 Genetic Algorithm, NESEM and upper bound ................................................... 63
5.5.1 Tissue Impedance ................................................................................................ 63
5.5.2 EFI Error .............................................................................................................. 65
5.6 Tissue impedance and EFI Comparison ............................................................. 68
5.7 Genetic Algorithm with Customs Current Levels .............................................. 72
5.7.1 Tissue Impedance – Compare Mutation Method.................................................... 74
5.7.2 Tissue Impedance – Compare Adaptfeasible .......................................................... 77

Chapter 6 Discussion ........................................................................................................ 81

Chapter 7 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 83
7.1 Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 83
7.2 Future Work ........................................................................................................ 84
References......................................................................................................................... 85
Appendix. A Information of Subject................................................................................. 88
Appendix. B Genetic Algorithm Environment Experiment Result .................................. 89
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[2] Vanpoucke, F. J., Zarowski, A. J., & Peeters, S. A., "Identification of the impedance model of an implanted cochlear prosthesis from intracochlear potential measurements.," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2174-2183, 2004.

[3] M. Hughes, "Objective measures in cochlear implants," Plural Publishing, 2012.

[4] P. C. Loizou, "Mimicking the human ear," IEEE signal processing magazine, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 101-130, 1998.

[5] G. Von Békésy, Experiments in hearing (Vol. 8), New York: McGraw-Hill: Ed. Ernest Glen Wever, 1960.

[6] M. F. a. F. A. S. Suesserman, "Lumped-parameter model for in vivo cochlear stimulation," IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 237-245, 1993.

[7] P. C. Loizou, "Introduction to cochlear implants," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 32-42, 1999.

[8] Paul, Peter V., and Gail M. Whitelaw, Hearing and deafness: An introduction for health and education professionals, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2010.

[9] Bonham, Ben H., and Leonid M. Litvak, "Current focusing and steering: modeling, physiology, and psychophysics," Hearing research, vol. 242, no. 1, pp. 141-153, 2008.

[10] Snyder, Russell L., John C. Middlebrooks, and Ben H. Bonham, "Cochlear implant electrode configuration effects on activation threshold and tonotopic selectivity," Hearing research, vol. 235, no. 1, pp. 23-38, 2008.

[11] Bierer, Julie Arenberg, and Kathleen F. Faulkner, "Identifying cochlear implant channels with poor electrode-neuron interface: partial tripolar, single-channel thresholds and psychophysical tuning curves," Ear and hearing, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 247-258, 2010.

[12] J. Perkins, Cochlear implant, CIAS(College of Imaging Arts & Sciences): https://cias.rit.edu/faculty-staff/101/faculty/337.

[13] Jefferson, Cochlear Implants, Thomas Jefferson University.

[14] L. H. Mens, "Advances in cochlear implant telemetry: evoked neural responses, electrical field imaging, and technical integrity," Trends in amplification , vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 143-159, 2007.

[15] Simmons FB, Mongeon CJ, Lewis WR, Huntington DA, " Electrical stimulation of acoustic nerve and inferior colliculus," Arch Otolaryngol, vol. 79, pp. 559-568, 1964.

[16] Doyle JB Jr, Doyle JH, Turnbull FM, Abbey J, House L, "Electrical stimuation in eighth nerve deafness: a preliminary report," Bull Los Angel Neuro Soc, vol. 28, pp. 148-150, 1963.

[17] Albert Mudry, MD, PhD; Mara Mills, PhD, "The Early History of the Cochlear Implant," JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol. 139, no. 5, pp. 446-453, 2013.

[18] R. Von Rohr, "Cochlear implant impedance telemetry measurements and model calculations to estimate modiolar currents," Diss. Master Thesis, Zurich: ETH and University Hospital, 2011.

[19] Nogueira, Waldo, et al., "Validation of a Cochlear Implant Patient-Specific Model of the Voltage Distribution in a Clinical Setting.," Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 4 2016.

[20] P. Y. Hsiao, "Modelling the Tissue Impedance Network in Cochlear Implant Based on Electrical Field Imaging and Differential Method," National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 2016.
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