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研究生:簡濟豪
研究生(外文):Ji-Hao Jian
論文名稱:淺層崩塌物聯網系統與深層型時域反射邊坡監測技術之整合
論文名稱(外文):Development of the integrated monitoring system of IoT and TDR for shallow and deep-seated landslides
指導教授:鐘志忠
指導教授(外文):Chih-Chung Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:227
中文關鍵詞:時域反射法物聯網邊坡監測資料統一發布格式
外文關鍵詞:TDRIOTSlope MonitoringSensorThings API
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近年因氣候異常使得台灣山坡地之安全監測重要程度逐年上升,但傳
統人力監測需耗費大量人力、機具、時間等成本,因此防災自動化監測技術逐漸普及,並隨著大數據、IoT(Internet of Things)概念而日益受到重視。時域反射技術(Time Domain Reflectometry,TDR)近期已被廣泛應用於土木監測,運用該技術可監測橋梁沖刷、水位、邊坡滑動及泥砂濃度等。近幾年隨著微控制板如 Arduino 與 MEMS( Microelectromechanical Systems)微感測器所形成之物聯網概念下,在既有的 TDR 監測系統之外,輔以多點的淺層崩塌物聯網監測模組,預期可增加邊坡滑動監測的有效數據種類,例如以Ublox GPS 晶片透過 RTK(Real Time Kinematic)解算定位資料,可有效確認邊坡地表位移狀態;以及三軸加速度計具有即時得知地表的傾度感測資料的優點,結合既有 TDR 地下滑動面監測,於不同之時間與空間尺度下,
可完成三道重要的監測邊坡滑動的判斷機制。本系統並結合溫度計、溼度計、土壤濕度計等感測元件,最後藉由 LPWAN(Low-Power Wide-Area Network)無線傳輸技術回傳監測數據至服務端。
另外本研究基於 OGC(Open Geospatial Consortium)所制定之 SensorThings API 的 Web 服務協定標準,包含感測器、觀測位置、觀測時間與觀測屬性,可由 JSON (JavaScript Object Notation)及 REST(Representational State Transfer)協議描述,故可提供比先前 SOS(Sensor Observation Service)標準更輕量化、更自由化的標準定義,更符合物聯網系統輕量化資料傳輸的理念。因此本研究提出 SensorThings API與 TDR 監測資訊平台連結應用之架構規劃與實作,以資料完全自動化為導向,將 TDR 監測資訊平台中所有感測器的異質性資料加以管理與描述,藉以提昇 TDR 監測資訊系統之資料交流效率。
The automatic monitoring systems are gradually concerned for disaster prevention in Taiwan recently. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is one of valuable technique for landslide monitoring. It is a passive-based monitoring method which provides multi-functions, such as water level, bridge scour, landslide, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), based on a single TDR device via a multiplexer. In addition, the Real Time Kinematic (RTK) based single frequency GPS sensor can provide the centri-meter for the surface displacement and direction of the landslide. Thus, this study integrate the low-cost monitoring device with single frequency GPS three-axis accelerometer for surface displacement monitoring, as well as the TDR for sliding surface monitoring. Consequently, the proposed monitoring system not only can provide diverse monitoring data at field-side, but also have three thresholds for early waring of the landslide.
Furthermore, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) provided SensorThings API, which has a standardized definition for the sensor description, observed position, and observed feature. Because it is based on JSON and Restful proctols, the content of SensorThings API is lighter and more liberal than Sensor Observation Service (SOS). Besides, it realizes data interoperable way by providing web service. This study also improved a middleware, which is between SOS and the existing TDR monitoring platform, by providing TDR heterogeneity data interoperability via SensorThings API finally.
致謝 ...................................................... iv
目錄 ....................................................... v
圖目錄 .................................................... viii
表目錄 .................................................... xvii
第 1 章 前言 ....................................................... 1
1-1 研究背景與動機 ....................................................... 1
1-2 研究目的 ....................................................... 3
1-3 研究流程 ....................................................... 4
第 2 章 文獻回顧 ....................................................... 7
2-1 坡地滑動分類說明 ....................................................... 7
2-2 WSN 監測應用 ....................................................... 9
2-2-1 簡易型淺層地滑監測系統 ...................................................... 10 2-2-2 公路邊坡崩塌監測之無線感測網路模組研發 ...................................................... 13
2-2-3 既有 GPS 應用與單頻 GPS 定位技術 ...................................................... 19 2-2-4 Low Power Wide Area Networks ( LPWAN ) ...................................................... 23 2-2-5 Arduino UNO 與 Raspberry pi 3B+比較 ...................................................... 25 2-3 其他坡地檢監測方法 ...................................................... 29
2-3-1 土壤電阻性質量測:地電阻影像法 ...................................................... 29 2-3-2 現地影像監測 ...................................................... 32 2-4 TDR 監測技術平台與統一資料格式分享技術 ...................................................... 33
2-4-1 TDR 基本原理 ...................................................... 34
2-4-2 OGC Sensor Observation Service
...................................................... 36
2-4-3 SOS 管理介面規劃 ...................................................... 50 2-4-4 SOS Control Center 建置成果說明 ...................................................... 51 2-4-5 OGC SensorThings API ...................................................... 55 2-5 綜合評析 ...................................................... 61
2-5-1 現場端 ...................................................... 61 2-5-2 服務端 ...................................................... 62 第 3 章 研究方法 ...................................................... 63
3-1 現場場址說明 ...................................................... 70
3-1-1 中央大學宵夜街停車場 ...................................................... 70 3-1-2 阿里山五彎仔 ...................................................... 88 3-2 中央大學宵夜街停車場建置測試 ...................................................... 96
3-2-1 現場硬體配置 ...................................................... 96 3-2-2 系統模組 ..................................................... 100 3-2-3 中央大學停車場案例 Arduino 運作機制 ..................................................... 106 3-2-4 樹莓派接收 GPS 收集資料運作程式 ..................................................... 111 3-3 阿里山公路 45k 建置方法 ..................................................... 113
3-3-1 現場端工業型電腦接收感測資料運作程式 ..................................................... 113 3-3-2 阿里山公路 45k Arduino 運作機制 ..................................................... 115 3-4 服務端 Parser 建立 ..................................................... 117
3-4-1 服務端 MQTT Parser 儲存至資料庫設計 ..................................................... 117 3-4-2 服務端 Parser 儲存至資料庫設計 ..................................................... 119 3-5 SensorThings API 架構方法 ..................................................... 120
3-5-1SensorThings API 與 TDR 多功能資訊平台整合規劃 ..................................................... 120 3-5-2 TDR 多功能資訊平台之 middleware 機制 ..................................................... 123
3-5-3 監測平台發布設定之 Published Configuration 資料庫規劃 ..................................................... 124 3-5-4TDR 監測資料基於 SensorThings API 資訊描述 ..................................................... 128 第 4 章 成果建置與評析 ..................................................... 137
4-1 中央大學現地測試成果 ..................................................... 139
4-1-1 中央大學宵夜街停車場 Arduino 運作評析 ..................................................... 139 4-1-2 中央大學宵夜街停車場 GPS 資料評析 ..................................................... 157 4-1-3 中央大學宵夜街停車場縮時攝影現場照片評析 ..................................................... 161 4-2 阿里山公路 45K 建置邊坡滑動感測物聯網系統成果 ..................................................... 164
4-2-1 阿里山公路 45K Arduino 運作評析 ..................................................... 164 4-2-2 阿里山公路 45K GPS 資料評析 ..................................................... 168 4-2-3 阿里山公路 45K TDR 變位型資料評析 ..................................................... 183 4-3 邊坡滑動判斷機制研擬 ..................................................... 186
4-4 SensorThings API 資料統一發布建置成果說明 ..................................................... 187
第 5 章 結論與建議 ..................................................... 191
5-1 結論 ..................................................... 191
5-2 建議 ..................................................... 192
參考文獻 ..................................................... 194
附錄 ..................................................... 200
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