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研究生:劉毅威
研究生(外文):Yi-Wei Liu
論文名稱:給予關愛還是銀兩? 獎勵對觀看的動機及觀眾與直播主之間關係的調節作用
指導教授:李憶萱李憶萱引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:網路直播有形獎勵無形獎勵自我決定理論關係
外文關鍵詞:Live streamingLive broadcastTangible rewardsIntangible rewardsSelf-determination theoryGuanxi
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由於近年來行動裝置普及、第四代行動通訊技術發展成熟,網路直播平台迅速竄起,並帶動整個直播產業往後十年的盛世。除了數個知名的直播平台的直播主與觀眾人數逐年攀升(如:17直播、Twitch),許多互聯網巨頭(如:Amazon、Facebok),也都紛紛投入直播市場。根據相關報導,分析師預估2020年華人直播市場可能從2017年的150億元成長至600億元,甚至可能更高。因此,直播產業是往後幾年的趨勢,且華人地區的直播市場更是一個值得探討的議題。
本研究旨在探討:「觀眾之動機與直播主之關係有什麼樣的關聯,且以有形獎勵與無形獎勵作為調節變數,試圖去了解獎勵是否會導致關係的變化?」,並以台灣與中國為調查對象,採用結構方程模型與多群組比較分析來進行研究。
本研究分兩個部分進行探討,第一部份為探討觀眾之內外部動機是否會影響不同觀眾與直播主關係(工具性關係、情感性關係、混合性關係)的建立;第二部分為探討有形獎勵與無形獎勵是否在內外部動機與不同的觀眾與直播主關係是否具有調節效果。研究結果顯示,有形獎勵對於「內部動機與混合性關係之間」、「外部動機與情感性關係之間」具有調節效果;無形獎勵對於「外部動機與工具性關係、情感性關係」具有調節效果。
本研究貢獻分成四個部分,第一、期望針對快速發展之直播產業的探討,帶來一套理論架構與實證研究;第二、華人地區直播產業發展較為快速,因此本研究採用華人社會的人際關係理論,來衡量華人直播情境中的觀眾與直播主之關係;第三、採用自我決定理論來探討觀眾觀看直播之動機,並如何影響其與直播主之關係;第四、本研究使用獎勵為調節變數,探討其對動機與關係的調節效果,填補了目前獎勵相關文獻在調節效果上的缺口。
Due to the popularity of mobile devices and 4G in recent years, the live streaming platform has emerged, and the entire broadcast industry has been flourishing for the next decade. In addition to the number of broadcasters and viewers of several well-known live streaming platforms, such as 17.live and Twitch, many Internet giants (Amazon, Facebok) have also entered the broadcast market. According to related reports, analysts estimated that the Chinese broadcast market in 2020 may grow from 15 billion dollar in 2017 to 60 billion dollar or even higher. Therefore, “broadcast industry” is a trend in the next few years, and the broadcast market in the Chinese region is a topic worth exploring.
The purpose of this study is to explore: "What is the relationship between the motivation of the viewers and the relationship between the broadcasters and viewers, and the use of tangible rewards and intangible rewards as adjustment variables, trying to understand whether the rewards will lead to changes in the relationship?" And this study survey the viewers in Taiwan and China, structural equation model and multi-group comparative analysis were used for the study.
This study will be divided into two parts. The first part is to explore whether the motivation of the viewers will affect the establishment of viewer-broadcaster relationship (included Instrumental Ties, Expressive ties, Mixed ties); the second part is discuss whether tangible rewards and intangible rewards have an adjustment effect between motivations and viewer-broadcaster relationship. The results show that tangible rewards have a regulating effect on "Instrinsic motivation and Mixed ties", "Extrinsic motivation and Expressive ties"; intangible rewards have a regulating effect on "Extrinsic motivation and Instrumental ties, Expressive ties".
The contribution of this research is divided into four parts. First, it is expected to bring about a theoretical framework and empirical research for the rapid development of the broadcast industry. Second, the broadcast industry in the Chinese region is developing rapidly. Therefore, this study uses the Relationship theory of Chinese society to measure the relationship between the viewers and the broadcasters in the Chinese region.Third, the study is the first to use the self-determination theory to explore the motivation of the viewer to watch the live broadcast, and how to influence its relationship with the broadcaster. Fourth, the study uses rewards to adjustment variables and explore its adjustment effect on motivation and relationship. At present, the gap in the adjustment effect of related literature is rewarded.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
一、緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究目的 2
1-3 研究動機與預期貢獻 6
二、文獻探討 8
2-1 關係 8
2-2 動機 11
2-2-1 觀眾外部動機與直播主之關係的形成 13
2-2-2 觀眾內部動機與直播主之關係的形成 16
2-3 獎勵 17
2-3-1 外部動機與觀眾-直播主關係受到獎勵之調節效果 19
三、研究方法 22
3-1 研究對象與樣本發放 22
3-2 問卷設計 22
3-3 變項衡量方式 23
3-3-1 外部動機 23
3-3-2 內部動機 24
3-3-3 觀眾與直播主之關係 26
3-3-4 獎勵 29
3-4 控制變數 31
3-5 分析方法 32
3-5-1 敘述統計與相關分析 32
3-5-2 因素分析 32
3-5-3 信度分析 33
3-5-4 效度分析 33
3-5-5 共同方法變異控制 35
3-5-6 結構方程模型分析 36
四、資料分析 38
4-1 樣本結構與敘述性統計分析 38
4-1-1 回收率 38
4-1-2 敘述性統計分析 38
4-2 相關分析 41
4-3 信度分析 44
4-4 建構效度分析 44
4-4-1 收斂效度 44
4-4-2 區別效度 46
4-5 共同方法變異分析 47
4-6 結構方程模型分析 47
4-6-1 結構模式之模式參數適配度 48
4-6-2 結構模式之整體適配度 51
4-6-3 研究模式之路徑係數分析 53
4-6-4 研究模式之調節效果評估 55
五、結論與建議 58
5-1 研究結果 58
5-1-1 觀眾之外部動機與內部動機如何影響關係 58
5-1-2 有形獎勵與無形獎勵調節觀眾之動機與觀眾與直播主之關係 62
5-1-3 研究發現 68
5-2研究貢獻 70
5-2-1 理論意涵層面 70
5-2-2 實務建議 71
5-3 研究限制與後續建議 73
參考文獻 76
附錄一、研究問卷 87
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Yen, D. A., Barnes, B. R., & Wang, C. L. (2011). The measurement of guanxi: Intro ducing the GRX scale. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(1), 97 108.DOI: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2010.09.014
Yoon, C., & Rolland, E. (2012). Knowledge-sharing in virtual communities: familiarity, anonymity and self-determination theory. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(11), 1133-1143. DOI: 10.1080/0144929X.2012.702355
Yoon, H. J., Sung, S. Y., Choi, J. N., Lee, K., & Kim, S. (2015). Tangible and intangible rewards and employee creativity: The mediating role of situational extrinsic motivation. Creativity Research Journal, 27(4), 383-393. DOI: 10.1080/10400419.2015.1088283
Yu, E., Jung, C., Kim, H., & Jung, J. (2018). Impact of viewer engagement on gift-giving in live video streaming. Telematics and Informatics, 35(5), 1450-1460. DOI: 10.1016/j.tele.2018.03.014
Zhao, Q., Chen, C. D., Cheng, H. W., & Wang, J. L. (2018). Determinants of live streamers’ continuance broadcasting intentions on Twitch: A self-determination theory perspective. Telematics and Informatics, 35(2), 406-420. DOI: 10.1016/j.tele.2017.12.018

二、中文文獻
邱皓政(2006),量化研究與統計分析—SPSS中文視窗版資料分析範例解析,台北:五南
陳正昌(2017),SPSS與統計分析(2版),台北:五南
陳順宇(2005),多變量分析,台北 : 華泰
黄光国&胡先缙(1988),人情与面子:中国人的权力游戏,台北:巨流图书公司
黃光國(2001),儒家關係主義的理論建構及其方法論基礎,教育與社會研究

三、網路資料
Jurre Pannekeet:Five Key Insights into Twitch and YouTube Gaming and the 2.4Bn Viewing Hours They Generated in Q1 2018. 2018年4月18日取自: https://newzoo.com/insights/articles/five key insights into twitch and youtube gaming/
林沅佐:網路直播產業分析。2016 年6 月30 日,取自:http://www.bpaper.org.tw/uncategorized/38-04/
姚建庭:新時代LIVE秀 觀察台灣數位直播使用狀況。2019 年3 月7 日,取自https://datayogurt.tw/article/info/7/1131
容榮&彭勇:2017上半年中國直播app白皮書丨中國移動和粉俱樂部&獵豹全球智庫聯合發布。2019 年7 月6 日,取自:http://www.goodbene.com/?p=3514
陳怡如:品牌趨勢:學校裡沒有教的「網紅經濟學」。2017 年2 月6 日,取自:https://www.expbravo.com/4403/%e5%93%81%e7%89%8c%e8%b6%a8%e5%8b%a2%e5%ad%b8%e6%a0%a1%e8%a3%a1%e6%b2%92%e6%9c%89%e6%95%99%e7%9a%84%e7%b6%b2%e7%b4%85%e7%b6%93%e6%bf%9f%e5%ad%b8.html
蕭佑和:VC怎麼看台灣直播產業?|大和有話說。2018 年1 月21 日 取自:https://dahetalk.com/2018/01/21/vc%e6%80%8e%e9%ba%bc%e7%9c%8b%e5%8f%b0%e7%81%a3%e7%9b%b4%e6%92%ad%e7%94%a2%e6%a5%ad%ef%bc%9f%ef%bd%9c%e5%a4%a7%e5%92%8c%e6%9c%89%e8%a9%b1%e8%aa%aa/
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