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研究生:李彥平
研究生(外文):Yen-Ping Lee
論文名稱:基於ARM架構之Linux嵌入式系統啟動加速技術
指導教授:王尉任王尉任引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Jen Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:軟體工程研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:軟體發展學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:49
中文關鍵詞:嵌入式系統嵌入式 Linux系統快速啟動bootloader
外文關鍵詞:embedded systemembedded Linuxfast bootingbootloader
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隨著物聯網技術與車用電子的快速普及,為了要實現智慧車載環境,現在汽車嵌入式系統需要處理感測器之感測資訊,但是由於車載環境具有無法持續穩定供電的特性,例如在汽車引擎熄火後所有電子裝置僅能仰賴電瓶供電,所以大部分的車載系統為了減少電力消耗會切換系統狀態至待命或者切斷電源,等待引擎發動時在切換回工作狀態,因此如何縮短嵌入式系統在狀態切換所消耗之時間就成了一個迫切需要解決的問題。快速啟動技術主要是根據嵌入式系統之特性,透過優化資料傳輸與減少不必要之初始化步驟,使得系統能夠以更短的時間進入可工作狀態,本研究將會在現存之加速技術中,選出適合現今嵌入式系統架構之技術,並針對所遇到之問題提出解決辦法,經過實驗測試,優化後的效能相較優化前減少了70%的啟動時間。
With the rapid popularization of the Internet of things and automotive electronics, the modern embedded system automotive needs to process information from sensors to help achieve an intelligent vehicle environment. The automotive environment has the characteristic of unstable power supply. For example, when the car flameout and the only power supply is car battery, the embedded system on the car should enter the standby mode or just shut down to save power. When the engine starts, the system comes back to the working mode. However, this procedure takes time, and it will become a problem if this procedure takes too long. Hence we need a fast booting mechanism to reduce the initializing time of the embedded system. The fast booting mechanism is mainly based on the characteristics of the embedded platform. Several types of techniques are popular: first is to bypass the unnecessary part of the booting procedure, second is to create a snapshot when the system is totally initialized, then resume the system by load the snapshot back when next booting, last is reduce booting time by changing the algorithm that used by booting procedure. This paper presents some the techniques that fit in the modern embedded systems and proposes a solution to this problem. Through experimental tests, the optimized systems initialize time is 70% faster than the original system.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
圖目錄 v
表目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究動機 1
1-3 論文貢獻 2
1-4 論文架構 2
第二章 背景知識 3
2-1背景技術 3
2-1-1 Das U-Boot[7] 3
2-1-2嵌入式Linux 啟動流程 4
2-1-3 Linux kernel 壓縮技術 4
2-1-4 LZO [11]壓縮演算法 5
2-1-5 Linux kernel image 5
2-1-6設備樹(Device tree)[12] 6
2-1-7工具鏈(Toolchain) 6
2-2啟動加速技術介紹 7
2-2-1 U-boot Falcon mode 7
2-2-2 Software Suspend/Resume[6] 8
2-2-3 Tux-On-Ice(TOI) 9
第三章 系統架構 10
3-1主要架構 10
3-2 系統建構流程 12
3-2-1 Bootloader 12
3-2-2 Linux kernel 12
3-2-3 儲存媒體配置 13
3-3 優化方法 14
3-3-1 U-Boot falcon mode 15
3-3-2 Disable kernel logging[14] 21
3-3-3 Disable BTRFS[15] 21
3-3-3 Kernel compression method 22
3-3-4 Suspend to disk 23
第四章 實驗結果與分析 29
4-1 實驗環境與量測方法 29
4-2 實驗結果與效能分析 30
4-2-1 優化方法一: Disable kernel logging 30
4-2-2 優化方法二: Disable BTRFS 31
4-2-3 優化方法三: Kernel compression method 31
4-2-4 優化方法四: U-Boot falcon mode 32
4-2-5 優化方法五: Suspend to disk 33
4-2-6 綜合測試 34
第五章 結論與未來研究方向 35
參考資料 36
[1] S. Kraijak and P. Tuwanut, "A survey on IoT architectures, protocols, applications, security, privacy, real-world implementation and future trends," in 11th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM 2015), 2015, pp. 1-6.
[2] G. S. Harinarayan, M. Rana, and A. Gupta, "Designing Robust Multi - Regulator Power Management Architectures for Automotive SoCs," in 2017 9th IEEE-GCC Conference and Exhibition (GCCCE), 2017, pp. 1-9.
[3] W. J. Fleming, "Overview of automotive sensors," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 296-308, 2001.
[4] D. Olsen, C. Brandt, and G. Balamitran. (2017). XIP with Linux: A New Spin on Embedded Architecture. Available: https://www.electronicdesign.com/embedded-revolution/xip-linux-new-spin-embedded-architecture
[5] K. H. Chung, M. S. Choi, and K. S. Ahn, "A Study on the Packaging for Fast Boot-up Time in the Embedded Linux," in 13th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2007), 2007, pp. 89-94.
[6] I. Joe and S. C. Lee, "Bootup time improvement for embedded Linux using snapshot images created on boot time," in The 2nd International Conference on Next Generation Information Technology, 2011, pp. 193-196.
[7] H. Zhang and M. Gao, "Analysis of U-Boot booting process and the realization of command menu," in 2011 International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering, 2011, pp. 2894-2896.
[8] D. Lee and Y. Won, "Booting Linux faster," in 2012 3rd IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 2012, pp. 665-668.
[9] A. J. W. P. o. M.-S. Tal, "Two flash technologies compared: NOR vs NAND," 2002.
[10] NOR Flash 和 NAND Flash 比较. Available: http://www.8051faq.com.cn/manager/download/20077633203664115781250.PDF
[11] J. Kane and Q. Yang, "Compression Speed Enhancements to LZO for Multi-core Systems," in 2012 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Computer Architecture and High Performance Computing, 2012, pp. 108-115.
[12] G. Likely and J. Boyer, "A Symphony of Flavours: Using the device tree to describe embedded hardware," in Linux Symposium, 2008.
[13] C. P. R. Raj and T. Seshu Babu, "A study on approaches to build cross-platform mobile applications and criteria to select appropriate approach," in 2012 Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON), 2012, pp. 625-629.
[14] G. Singh, K. Bipin, and R. Dhawan, "Optimizing the boot time of Android on embedded system," in 2011 IEEE 15th International Symposium on Consumer Electronics (ISCE), 2011, pp. 503-508.
[15] O. Rodeh, J. Bacik, and C. Mason, "BTRFS: The Linux B-Tree Filesystem Trans. Storage," vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1-32, 2013.
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