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研究生:歐煌仁
研究生(外文):Huang-Ren Ou
論文名稱:應用於自適應性串流之隨機網路編碼多路徑傳輸控制方法
論文名稱(外文):Random Network Coded Multipath TCP for DASH Streaming
指導教授:黃志煒
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:通訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:動態適應性串流技術虛擬實境網路編碼多路徑傳輸NS-3
外文關鍵詞:DASHVRNetwork codingMPTCPNS-3
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隨著現代網路技術的成長,許多人透過他們的行動裝置觀看影片。而隨 著影片的傳輸量日漸增長,使用者的網路狀況將是一個問題。若在一個 不好的網路情況下觀看高畫質影片,將會影響影片的播放流暢度,並會 影響使用者體驗。為了解決這個問題,現代愈來愈多影片技術針對網路 的狀況提出了解決方案。
適應性串流技術是現在普遍的傳流技術,其目的是要讓使用者在不好 的網路情況下,可以選擇較低的畫質觀看。不過,此技術雖然可以適 應網路情況,但若一直持續播放低畫質影片,使用者因此也會受到影響。而當使用者若在體驗高畫質影片(如:VR)面臨網路不穩定時,其中的問題仍需要被關注。另外,為了提供較高的網路傳輸量,多路徑傳輸(Multipath-TCP)可以滿足影片使用者的需求。雖然現在有許多裝置支援多路徑技術,但其中可能面臨到的網路問題包括:排程、壅塞及路徑的匹配問題。
本篇研究針對DASH串流使用者在多路徑網路不匹配下的探討,並提出SNC-MPTCP演算法來解決各種網路情況較差的環境。在演算法中,我們引入網路編瑪的技術並將其理論的解碼計算式套用在其中,來應付網路較差的環境,進而提高網路傳輸及影片畫質的表現。本實驗實作於NS-3模擬器,並設置不同影片傳輸速率來模擬一般影片和VR影片的傳輸狀況,而我們也測試了在路徑不同匹配下SNC-MPTCP的表現。最後,我們觀察到SNC-MPTCP的表現在傳輸中勝過單條的TCP、原始的MPTCP和一般的編瑪NC-MPTCP在DASH串流的傳輸上。
With the evolution of network technology, many people watch streaming videos by their mobile devices. As the increasing of video data traffic, the network condition of mobile users become important. If mobile users watch a high resolution video under a worse network condition, it will impact their experience. To solve this problem, there are many streaming techniques to come out with a newly strategy for a better solution. Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) is now a common streaming technique that provide a suitable segment bitrate for video users to watch their videos. But, it will still be an issue while the resolution remain lower which may influence the user’s experience. When a DASH client is watching a VR streaming service, the unstable network will cause the representation of video contents. Otherwise, to offer a higher network transmission, multipath TCP (MPTCP) becomes a method to provide video user’s a higher link capacity. As many devices support MPTCP and the higher link capacity can cover the video traffic. But, many studies show that some of problems in MPTCP transmission should be concerned, such as scheduling, congestion control and path conditions. In this work, we aim to discuss when a DASH client watch their streaming under unstable MPTCP transmission and propose an SNC-MPTCP (Segment Network Coding over MPTCP) algorithm to overcome several network situations. In our method, we apply the network coding to protect loss packets and use the theoretical formulation to estimate decoding probability. Then, we also make an implementation in NS-3. The scenarios include general video and VR dataset under limited link capacity and cross traffic situations. Finally, we observe that SNC-MPTCP can handle different condition and get higher performance compared with single TCP, naive MPTCP and NC-MPTCP in the DASH transmission.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 Contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.4 Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 Background of Video Streaming: DASH and VR 4 2.1 Overview of video streaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 DASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2.1 The principle and architecture of DASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2.2 The benefit of DASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2.3 DASH related works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 VR content delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3.1 The network requirement for VR applications . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3.2 DASH on VR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3 Background of Multipath TCP and Network Coding 9 3.1 MPTCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.1 Protocol structure and design goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.2 Connection establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1.3 Data sequence number signal option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2 Network coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2.1 Random linear network coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.3 Network coding with MPTCP (NC-MPTCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4 Exact Decoding Probability 17 4.1 Theoretical formulation for single path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.1.1 Decoding probability in decoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1.2 Exact decoding probability in various N and packet loss rate . . . . 18 4.1.3 Redundancy ratio in various N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.2 The extension of theoretical formulation for multipath . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5 Network Coding Aware Early Termination 21 5.1 Design principle and architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.2 Network coding for video streaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.2.1 Why we encode the whole DASH segment ? . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.2.2 Encoder of network coding for video streaming . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.2.3 Decoder of network coding for video streaming . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.3 SNC-MPTCP algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.3.1 Early termination for server side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.3.2 Early termination for client side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6 Implementation 28 6.1 Environment setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6.1.1 DASH bitrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.1.2 DASH segment duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.2 Implementation for network coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.3 Implementation for MPTCP early termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.3.1 Exact decoding probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.3.2 Closing a connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.3.3 Packet loss rate evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7 PerformanceEvaluation 34 7.1 General video streaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7.1.1 Wired sender with link capacity limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7.1.1.1 Grain analysis of performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.1.1.2 Retransmission rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.1.1.3 DASH representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.1.2 Wired sender with link capacity limitation and video cross traffic . . 36 7.1.2.1 Grain analysis of performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.1.2.2 Retransmission rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 7.1.2.3 DASH representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 7.2 VR streaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7.2.1 Wired sender with link capacity limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 7.2.1.1 Grain analysis of performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
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7.2.1.2 Retransmission rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 7.2.1.3 DASH representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7.2.2 Wired sender with link capacity limitation and video cross traffic . . 41 7.2.2.1 Grain analysis of performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7.2.2.2 Retransmission rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7.2.2.3 DASH representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8 ConclusionandFutureWork 44 8.1 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 8.2 Future work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Bibliography 45
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