(3.230.76.48) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/13 16:50
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:洪維佐
研究生(外文):HONG, WEI-TZUO
論文名稱:麥芽比例、金柑果汁飲料含量、明膠濃度與巴氏滅菌對金柑啤酒品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Malt Ratio, Kumquat Juice Drink Content, Gelatine Concentration, and Pasteurization on the Quality of Kumquat Beer
指導教授:石正中石正中引用關係
指導教授(外文):SHYR, JENG-JUNG
口試委員:許明仁陳右人
口試委員(外文):SHEU, MING-JENCHEN, LOU-ZEN
口試日期:2018-07-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:園藝學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:大麥芽小麥芽金柑明膠巴氏滅菌啤酒
外文關鍵詞:Barley maltWheat maltKumquatGelatinePasteurizationBeer
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:77
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究利用兩種大麥芽(Pilsen和Vienna)分別與一種小麥芽(White wheat)混和(大麥芽:小麥芽比例10:0、8:2、6:4以及4:6),使用單一種啤酒花(Simcoe)與拉格酵母(Lager yeast, Fermentis S-23)釀造之八種啤酒,於15 ℃進行一次發酵24天,在瓶內發酵階段前,添加製備之金柑全果系果汁飲料(11%、13%、15%、17%、19%),18天後進行40種啤酒之品質分析與官能品評,再從中選擇最佳之處理組,於瓶內發酵階段,添加明膠改善泡沫品質,最後再探討巴氏滅菌及貯藏溫度對金柑啤酒之影響。
Pilsen麥芽處理組之金柑啤酒顏色較明亮與黃,且彩度較低。啤酒內金柑果汁飲料的含量會影響啤酒的明亮度(L*)、彩度(C)與色相角(h),隨著金柑果汁飲料濃度增加,Pilsen麥芽處理組的亮度變暗、顏色變得偏紅以及彩度增加;Vienna麥芽處理組的亮度變暗、顏色變得偏紅以及彩度降低。泡沫持續時間以Pilsen麥芽處理組較佳,金柑果汁飲料含量19%,麥芽比例6:4與8:2,分別是192秒與157秒。比重、酒精度與糖度以Vienna麥芽處理組較高。官能品評分析中,麥芽比例8:2、添加19%金柑果汁飲料之樣品色澤分數最高。香氣受到麥芽比例影響,添加小麥有較好的香氣。
挑選泡沫持續時間前六組之金柑啤酒,以官能品評的色澤、泡沫、香氣、口感與餘味之分數進行排名。結果以 Pilsen大麥芽混和White wheat小麥芽比例8:2,添加金柑全果系果汁飲料含量19%,為40種金柑啤酒中最佳。
金柑啤酒添加明膠,濃度為0.25%及0.5%,使透光率增加,明亮度變亮,彩度變飽和、顏色變黃,並能延長金柑啤酒的泡沫持續時間,降低脂肪酸辛酸及癸酸含量,其中明膠濃度0.25%之金柑啤酒在官能品評中,色澤、泡沫、口感、餘味的分數皆是最高。
金柑啤酒經巴氏滅菌後,泡沫持續時間會減少並且對官能品評的色澤、泡沫、香氣、口感及餘味有不好的影響。添加明膠無滅菌之金柑啤酒於5℃或25℃,在貯藏期間皆能維持官能品評色澤、泡沫、香氣、口感、苦味與餘味的受喜好程度。
綜合以上結果,以Pilsen大麥芽混和White wheat小麥芽,比例8:2,在裝瓶前添加製備之金柑全果系果汁飲料至發酵液19%與明膠0.25%,未巴氏滅菌處理,為本實驗最佳之金柑啤酒釀造程序。

This study used two barley malts mixed with one wheat malt (the ratios of barley malt to wheat malt were 10:0, 8:2, 6:4, and 4:6), one hop (Simcoe) and one Lager yeast(Fermentis S-23) to brew 8 kinds of beer. Major fermentation was conducted at 15°C for 24 days. At the bottle conditioning stage, kumquat fruit juice drink was added to prepare fermentation mash contained 11%, 13%, 15%, 17% and 19% kumquat juice drink respectively. After 18 days, quality and sensory analysis of 40 kinds of beer were conducted. Gelatine was added to improve foam quality of kumquat beer at the bottle conditioning stage. The effects of pasteurization and storage temperature on kumquat beer were also examined.
Beers made from Pilsen malt showed a brighter, yellower and less saturated in color. The content of kumquat juice drink affected the lightness (L*), chroma (C), and hue angle (h) of the beer. As the content of kumquat juice drink increased, the Pilsen malt treatments were darkened, reddened and more saturated; the Vienna malt treatments were darkened, reddened and less saturated. The beers made from Pilsen malt and White wheat malt at the ratios of 6:4 and 8:2 containing 19% of kumquat juice drink had longer beer head retention time, 192s and 157s, respectively. Specific gravity, alcohol content and sugar content were higher in the Vienna malt treatments. According to the result of sensory evaluation, beer made from malts at the ratio of 8:2 contained 19% of kumquat juice drink had the highest score of color. Wheat malt resulted in a higher sensory score of aroma.
Beers of better beer head retention time were conducted the sensory evaluation on color, foam, aroma, taste and after taste. The result showed that the beer made from Pilsen and White wheat (at the ratio of 8:2) containing kumquat fruit juice drink (19%) was the best among 40 kumquat beers.
Kumquat beer added 0.25% or 0.5% gelatine showed a higher transmittance, brighter, yellower and more saturated in color. Addition of gelatine in kumquat beer also prolonged the beer head foam retention time and decreased octanoic and decanoic acid content in kumquat beer. The highest sensory evaluation scores of color, foam, aroma, taste and after taste were found from kumquat beer added 0.25% of gelatine. After pasteurization, beer head retention time of kumquat beer was decreased. Pasteurization also reduced the sensory evaluation scores of color, foam, aroma, taste and after taste of kumquat beer. Kumquat beer of gelatine added and unpasteurized could keep good sensory scores of color, foam, aroma, taste, bitterness and after taste during storage at 5℃ or 25℃.
To conclude the results above, kumquat beer made from Pilsen and White wheat (8:2) containing 19% of kumquat fruit juice drink and 0.25% of gelatine without pasteurization is the best technique for the brewing of kumquat beer.

摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
附錄 XI
壹、 前言 1
貳、 前人研究 2
一、 啤酒 2
(一)啤酒簡介 2
(二)世界啤酒種類 2
(三)啤酒品質 3
(四)啤酒釀造流程 4
二、 麥芽 6
(一)大麥簡介 6
(二)麥芽製備 6
(三)麥芽種類 8
三、 啤酒花 10
(一)啤酒花簡介 10
(二)啤酒花成分 10
(三)啤酒花成分之化學反應 11
四、 酵母 14
(一)酵母簡介 14
(二)啤酒酵母 14
(三)啤酒酵母種類 15
五、 啤酒泡沫形成原因 16
(一)啤酒泡沫的有利因素 16
(二)啤酒泡沫的不利因素 17
六、 金柑 18
(一)金柑品種 18
(二)金柑果實色澤 19
(三)金柑果實的香氣來源 19
七、 食品增稠劑 20
(一)食品增稠劑簡介 20
(二)食品增稠劑種類 20
八、 巴斯德氏滅菌法 22
九、 研究目的 23
參、 材料與方法 24
一、 材料 24
(一)金柑啤酒製備之原料 24
(二)金柑啤酒製備之工具 25
二、 方法 28
(一)金柑果汁飲料之製備 28
(二)金柑啤酒之製備 29
(三)金柑啤酒之處理 30
(四)玻璃啤酒瓶清洗方法 34
(五)分析項目與方法 35
肆、 結果與討論 39
一、 麥芽比例對金柑啤酒品質之影響 39
(一)麥芽比例對金柑啤酒亮度、彩度與色相角之影響 39
(二)麥芽比例對金柑啤酒泡沫持續性、比重與成分之影響 41
(三)麥芽比例對金柑啤酒官能品評之影響 44
二、 麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒品質之影響 45
(一)麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒亮度、彩度與色相角之影響 45
(二)麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒泡沫持續性之影響 48
(三)麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒比重與成分之影響 50
(四)麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒官能品評之影響 58
(五)四十種金柑啤酒之最佳處理組 64
三、 金柑果汁飲料與明膠濃度對啤酒品質之影響 65
(一)金柑果汁飲料與明膠濃度對啤酒透光率、明亮度、彩度與色相角之影響 65
(二)金柑果汁飲料與明膠濃度對金柑啤酒泡沫持續性之影響 68
(三)金柑果汁飲料與明膠濃度對金柑啤酒比重與成分之影響 69
(四)明膠濃度對金柑啤酒官能品評之影響 75
四、 明膠濃度、巴氏滅菌與貯藏溫度對金柑啤酒貯藏期間品質之影響 79
(一)不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間透光率與色澤之影響 79
(二)不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間泡沫持續性之影響 84
(三)不同處理對金柑啤酒比重與成分之影響 86
(四)不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間官能品評之影響 94
伍、 結論 100
陸、 參考文獻 101
柒、 附錄 108
圖目錄
圖一、啤酒製備流程 5
圖二、啤酒中α酸之結構 12
圖三、啤酒中β酸之結構 12
圖四、啤酒花之多酚化合物組成 13
圖五、α酸之異構化作用 13
圖六、冷卻蛇管與鍋子及鍋蓋整體 25
圖七、一次發酵桶(PET材質) 26
圖八、裝瓶器(左)整體(右)分解圖 27
圖九、啤酒壓瓶器、啤酒玻璃瓶與瓶蓋 27
圖十、新鮮金柑果實 28
圖十一、金柑果汁飲料 28
圖十二、金柑啤酒的製作流程 29
圖十三、自製泡沫測定器 36
圖十四、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒透光率(%)之影響 66
圖十五、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒明亮度(CIE L*)之影響 66
圖十六、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒彩度(C)之影響 67
圖十七、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒色相角(h)之影響 67
圖十八、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒泡沫持續性之影響 68
圖十九、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒比重之影響 70
圖二十、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒乙醇含量之影響 70
圖二十一、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒可溶性固形物(°Brix)之影響 71
圖二十二、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒pH值之影響 71
圖二十三、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒可滴定酸含量之影響 72
圖二十四、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒黏度之影響 72
圖二十五、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒己酸含量之影響 73
圖二十六、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒辛酸含量之影響 73
圖二十七、明膠濃度對瓶內發酵的啤酒癸酸含量之影響 74
圖二十八、明膠濃度對金柑啤酒官能品評色澤之影響 76
圖二十九、明膠濃度對金柑啤酒官能品評泡沫之影響 76
圖三十、明膠濃度對金柑啤酒官能品評香氣之影響 77
圖三十一、明膠濃度對金柑啤酒官能品評口感之影響 77
圖三十二、明膠濃度對金柑啤酒官能品評苦味之影響 78
圖三十三、明膠濃度對金柑啤酒官能品評餘味之影響 78
表目錄
表一、全穀大麥與全穀小麥之物質成分 9
表二、啤酒花的化學組成 11
表三、啤酒中脂肪酸的含量(mg•L-1) 17
表四、啤酒官能品評表 38
表五、麥芽比例對金柑啤酒明亮度(CIE L*)、彩度(C)與色相角(h)之影響 40
表六、麥芽比例對金柑啤酒泡沫持續性、比重與成分之影響 43
表七、麥芽比例對金柑啤酒官能品評分數之影響 44
表八、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒明亮度(CIE L*)之影響 46
表九、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒彩度(C)之影響 46
表十、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒色相角(h)之影響 47
表十一、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的泡沫持續性之影響 49
表十二、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的比重之影響 51
表十三、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的乙醇含量(mL •100mL-1)之影響 51
表十四、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的可溶性固形物(°Brix)之影響 52
表十五、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的pH值之影響 54
表十六、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的可滴定酸(g•L-1)之影響 54
表十七、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的己酸含量(mg•L-1)之影響 56
表十八、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的辛酸含量(mg•L-1)之影響 56
表十九、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的癸酸含量(mg•L-1)之影響 57
表二十、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的官能品評色澤之影響 59
表二十一、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的官能品評泡沫之影響 59
表二十二、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的官能品評香氣之影響 61
表二十三、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的官能品評口感之影響 61
表二十四、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的官能品評苦味之影響 63
表二十五、麥芽比例與金柑果汁飲料含量對金柑啤酒的官能品評餘味之影響 63
表二十六、泡沫持續時間前六名之處理組官能品評排名與加總 64
表二十七、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間透光率(%)之影響 80
表二十八、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間亮度(CIE L*)之影響 82
表二十九、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間彩度(C)之影響 83
表三十、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間色相角(h)之影響 83
表三十一、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的泡沫持續性之影響 85
表三十二、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的比重之影響 87
表三十三、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的乙醇含量(mL •100mL-1)之影響 87
表三十四、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的可溶性固形物(°Brix)之影響 88
表三十五、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的pH值之影響 90
表三十六、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的可滴定酸(g•L-1)之影響 90
表三十七、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的己酸含量(mg•L-1)之影響 92
表三十八、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的辛酸含量(mg•L-1)之影響 92
表三十九、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的癸酸含量(mg•L-1)之影響 93
表四十、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的官能品評色澤之影響 95
表四十一、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的官能品評泡沫之影響 95
表四十二、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的官能品評香氣之影響 97
表四十三、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的官能品評口感之影響 97
表四十四、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的官能品評苦味之影響 99
表四十五、不同處理對金柑啤酒貯藏期間的官能品評餘味之影響 99
附錄
附錄一、啤酒營養成份表(U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2018) 108
附錄二、啤酒種類與色度對照表(宋,2016) 109
附錄三、麥汁內主要的酶以及其作用(Palmer, 2006) 110
附錄四、皮爾森麥芽規格 111
附錄五、維也納麥芽規格 112
附錄六、白小麥麥芽規格 113
附錄七、下層酵母廠牌型號與性能 114



1.中華人民共和國家標準。2008年。啤酒。GB 4927-2008。
2.中華民國國家標準。2004年。酒類檢驗法-總酸度及揮發性酸度測驗。CNS14850N6376。
3.王志堅。2006年。啤酒膠體穩定性與泡沫質量。釀酒科技 144(6): 120-122。
4.王鵬。2008年。比利時啤酒品飲與餘味指南。積木文化出版社。台灣。
5.王鵬。2015年。世界啤酒品飲大全。寫樂文化有限公司。台灣。
6.田洪濤。2007年。啤酒生產問答。化學工業出版社。北京。
7.宋培弘。2016年。Let’s Brew!自釀啤酒完全指南。精誠資訊股份有限公司。台灣。
8.林錦淡。1983年。啤酒釀造技術。華香園出版社。台灣。
9.林欣榜. 2000. 水果篇:金柑。鄉間小路 26 (12): 44。
10.林瑞雯。2002年。金柑全果系果汁降低苦味及改善黏稠度之研究。國立台灣大學園藝學系研究所碩士論文,臺北市。取自https://hdl.handle.net/11296/s7j37k。
11.胡文姝。2003年。啤酒與啤酒花化學。國立中正大學化學研究所碩士論文,嘉義縣。 P48-52。取自https://hdl.handle.net/11296/46npev。
12.陳秀蓉、任寶倉。2007年。啤酒花豐產栽培技術。金盾出版社。北京。
13.陳杰忠。2003。果樹栽培學各論-南方本。中國農業出版社。北京。
14.陳炳輝. 2000。類胡蘿蔔素的特性與應用。科學發展月刊 28(8): 599-604。
15.張吉磊、鄭飛雲、郝俊光、李崎。2010年。啤酒中異α酸和蛋白質含量對啤酒泡持性的影響。食品與生物技術學報 29(6): 905-910。
16.張建華。2005年。影響啤酒泡沫的主要因素。江蘇食品與發酵 (3): 28-30。
17.黃勇。2007年。啤酒泡沫與生產控制。釀酒科技157(7): 70-72。
18.黃勁予。2016年。大麥芽、啤酒花與發酵糖源對精釀蜂蜜啤酒釀造之影響。國立宜蘭大學園藝系碩士論文,宜蘭縣。P28-33。取自https://hdl.handle.net/11296/5qd5kg。
19.黃桂香、何靜。2006。金柑優質高效栽培。金盾出版社。北京。
20.葉竹真。2016。芋頭香甜酒之研究。中山醫學大學健康餐飲暨產業管理學系碩士
論文,臺中市。取自https://hdl.handle.net/11296/qs653r。
21.廖國英、徐信次、吳啟智、郭長生、李金龍、林金和。1999。台灣的小果柑橘。中國園藝45 (1): 37-41。
22.劉書維。2014年。茶葉再製酒製備之研究。國立宜蘭大學園藝系碩士論文,宜蘭縣。P54。取自https://hdl.handle.net/11296/re5892。
23.蔡文福。1994年。雜糧作物各論I.禾穀類。財團法人台灣區雜糧發展基金會。P3-126。
24.鐘杰輝。1986。影響米酒高級醇類、酯類因素之探討。酒類試驗所研究年報,75
年度,P135-150。台灣。
25.Abdelrahim, K. A. and H. S. Ramaswamy. 1995. High temperature/pressure rheology of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Food Res Int. 28(3): 285-290.
26.Almaguer, C., C. Schönberger, M. Gastl, E. K. Arendt, and T. Becker. 2014. Humulus lupulus- a story that begs to be told. A review. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 120: 289-314.
27.Asano, K. and N. Hashimoto. 1980. Isolation and characterization of foaming proteins of beer. J. Amer. Soc. Brew. Chem. 38: 129-137.
28.Asano, K., K. Shinagawa, and N. Hashimoto. 1982. Characterization of haze-forming proteins of beer and their roles in chill haze formation. J. Amer. Soc. Brew. Chem. 40: 147-154.
29.Bamforth, C.W. and C. Milani. 2004. The foaming mixtures of albumin and hordein protein hydrolysates in model systems. J. Sci. Food Agr. 84: 1001-1004.
30.BeMiller, J. N. 2011. Pasting, paste, and gel properties of starch–hydrocolloid combinations. Carbohydrate Polymers 86(2): 386-423.
31.Benitez, J., A. Forster, D. De Keukeleire, M. Moir, F. Scharpe, L. Verhagen, and K. Westwood. 1997. Hops and hop products: Duitsland.
32.Biendl, M. 2009. Hops and health. Tech Q Master Brew Assoc Am. 46: 1-7.
33.Boulton, R. B., V. L. Singleton, L. F. Bisson, and R. E. Kundee. 1996. Principles and practices of winemaking. Chapman and Hall. New York.
34.Benitez, J. L.; Forster, A.; De Keukeleire, D.; Moir, M. Sharpe, F. R.; Verhagen, L.
35.Bourbon, A. I., A. C. Pinheiro, C. Ribeiro, C. Miranda, J. M. Maia, J. A. Teixeira, and A. A. Vicente. 2010. Characterization of galactomannans extracted from seeds of Gleditsia triacanthos and Sophora japonica through shear and extensional rheology: Comparison with guar gum and locust bean gum. Food Hydrocolloids 24(2): 184-192.
36.Bravi, E., O. Marconi, V. Sileoni, and G. Perretti. 2017. Determination of free fatty acids in beer. Food Chem. 215: 341-346.
37.Briggs, D. E., P. Brookes, R. Stevens, and C. Boulton. 2004. Brewing: Science and practice: Elsevier. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
38.Casey, T. R. and C. W. Bamforth. 2010. Silicon in beer and brewing. J Sci Food Agr. 90: 784-788.
39.Castillo-Sanchez, J. X., M. S. Garcia-Falcon, J. Garrido, E. Martinez-Carballo, L. R. Martins-Dias, and X. C. Mejuto. 2008. Phenolic compounds and colour stability of vinhao wines: Influence of wine-making protocol and fining agents. Food Chem. 106: 18-26.
40.Castillo-Sanchez, J. J., J. C. Mejuto, J. Garrido, amd S. Garcia-Falcon. 2006. Influence of wine-making protocol and fining agents on the evolution of the anthocyanin content, colour and general organoleptic quality of Vinhao wines. Food Chem. 97(1): 130-136.
41.Cevoli, C., F. Balestra, L. Ragni, and A. Fabbri. 2013. Rheological characterisation of selected food hydrocolloids by traditional and simplified techniques. Food Hydrocolloids 33(1): 142-150.
42.Chen, B.H., T.M. Chen, and J.T. Chien. 1994. Kinetic model for studying isomerization of α- and β-carotene during heating and illumination. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 2391-2397.
43.Coelho, E., J. Magalhães, F. B. Pereira, F. Macieira, L. Domingues, and J. M.Oliveira. 2019. Volatile fingerprinting differentiates diverse-aged craft beers. LWY 108: 129-136.
44.Cosme, F., J. M. Ricardo-Da-Silva, and O. Laureano. 2008. Interactions between protein fining agents and proanthocyanidins in white wine. Food Chem. 106: 536-544.
45.Cosme, F., J. M. Ricardo-Da-Silva, and O. Laureano. 2009. Effect of various proteins on different molecular weight proanthocyanidin fractions of red wine during wine fining. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 60(1): 74-81.
46.Cunha, P. L. R., R. R. Castro, F. A. C. Rocha, R. C. M. de Paula, and J. P. A. Feitosa. 2005. Low viscosity hydrogel of guar gum: Preparation and physicochemical characterization. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 37(1): 99-104.
47.De Keukeleire, D. 2000. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry. Quimica nova 23: 108-112.
48.Del Vecchio, H. W., C. A. Dayharsh, and F. C. Baselt. 1951. Thermal death time studies on beer spoilage organisms. Proceedings of the American Society of Brewing Chemists P45.
49.Douma, A.C., M. Mocking-Bode, E. Kooijmann, E. Stolzenbach, R. Orsel, and A.C.A.P.A. Bekkers. 1997. Identification of foam-stabilizing proteins under conditions of normal beer dispense and their biochemical and physicochemical properties. Maastricht, Oxford: IRL Press. P671-679.
50.Dredge, M. 2009. Craft beer world. Dog ''n'' Bone. London, UK.
51.Dresel, M., A. Dunkel, and T. Hofmann. 2015. Sensomics analysis of key bitter compounds in the hard resin of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and their contribution to the bitter profile of Pilsner-type beer. J Agri and Food Chem. 63: 3402-3418.
52.Evans, D.E., A. Surrel, M. Sheehy, D.C. Stewart, and L.H.Robinson. 2008. Comparison of foam quality and the influence of hop alpha-acids and proteins using five foam analysis methods. J. Amer. Soc. Brew. Chem. 66: 1-10.
53.Fereidoon S. M. 1995. Food Phenolics. Technomic Pub Co. P93-94, 136-155.
54.Gaetano, G. D., S. Costanzo, A. D. Castelnuovo, L. Badimon, D. Bejko, A. Alkerwi, G. Chiva-Blanch, R. Estruch, C. L. Vecchia, S. Panico, G. Pounis,F. Sofi, S. Stranges, M. Trevisan, F. Ursini, C. Cerletti, M. B. Donati, and L. Iacoviello. 2016. Effects of moderate beer consumption on health and disease:A consensus document. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 26: 443-467.
55.Granados, J. Q., M. V. Mir, H. L. G. Serrana, and M. C. L. Martinez. 1996. The influence of added caramel on furanic aldehyde content of matured brandies. Food Chem. 56 (4): 415-419.
56.Hassan, H. M. M., A. S. Afify, A. E. Basyiony, and G. T. Ahmed. 2010. Nutritional and functional properties of defatted wheat protein isolates. Australian Journal of Basic and
Applied Sciences 4(2): 348-58.
57.Haug, I. J., K. I. Draget, and O. Smidsrød. 2004. Physical and rheological properties of fish gelatin compared to mammalian gelatin. Food Hydrocolloids 18(2): 203-213.
58.Hejgaard, J. and P. Kaersgaard. 1983. Purification and properties of the major antigenic beer protein of barley origin. J. Inst. Brew. 89: 402-410.
59.Hoefler, A.C. 2004. Hydrocolloids. Minnesota: Eagan Press.
60.Homoki-Farkas, P., F. Oersi, and L. W. Kroh. 1997. Methylglyoxal determination from different carbohydrates during heat processing. Food Chem. 59(1): 157-163.
61.Hora´k, T., J. Culik, M. Jurkova, P. Cejka, and V. Kellner. 2008. Determination of free medium-chain fatty acids in beer by stir bar sorptive extraction. J. Chromatography A. 1196-1197: 96-99.
62.Hora´k, T., J. Culik, P. Cejka, M. Jurkova, V. Kellner, J. Dvorak, and H. Danusa. 2009. Analysis of free fatty acids in beer: Comparison of solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, and stir bar sorptive extraction. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57: 11081-11085.
63.Hughes, P. and W. Simpson. 1995. Interaction between hop bitter acids and metal cations assessed by ultra-violet spectrophotometry. Belg. J. Brew. Biotechnol. P35-39.
64.Huyskens, S., R. Timberg and J. Gross. 1985. Pigment and plastid ultrastructural changes in kumquat (Fortunella margarita) "Nagami" during ripening. J. Plant Physiol. 118(1): 61-72.
65.Iimure, T., K. Takoi, T. Kaneko, M. Kihara, K. Hayashi and K. Ito. 2008. Novel prediction method of beer foam stability using protein Z, barley dimeric aamylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and yeast thioredoxin. J. Agr. Food Chem. 56: 8664-8671.
66.Kapoor, M. P., N. Ishihara, and T. Okubo. 2016. Soluble dietary fibre partially hydrolysed guar gum markedly impacts on postprandial hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and incretins metabolic hormones over time in healthy and glucose intolerant subjects. Journal of Functional Foods 24: 207-220.
67.Karabín, M, T. Hudcová, L. Jelínek, and P. Dostálek.2016. Biologically active compounds from hops and prospects for their use. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 15: 542-567.
68.Kaur, S. and M. Das. 2015. Nutritional and functional characterization of barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix. J Food Sci Technol. 52(9): 5510-5521.
69.Lea, A.G.H. and J.R. Piggott. 2003. Fermented Beverage Production. 2nd edition. Springer. P379.
70.Lee, G. C. and C. Y. Lee. 1997. Inhibitory effect of caramelization products on enzymic browning. Food Chem. 60: 231-235.
71.López, F., P. Pescador, C. Guell, M. L. Morales, M. C. Garcia-Parrilla, and A. M. Troncoso. 2005. Industrial vinegar clarification by cross-flow microfiltration: Effect on colour and polyphenol content. Journal of Food Engineering 68(1): 133-136.
72.Lusk, L.T., H. Goldstein, and D. Ryder. 1995. Independent role of beer proteins, melanoidins and polysaccharides in foam formation. J. Amer. Soc. Brew. Chem. 53: 93-103.
73.Macheix J. J., A. Fleuriet, and J. Billot. 1990. Fruit Phenolics. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
74.Maeda, K., S. Yokoi, K. Kamada and M. Kamimura. 1991. Foam stability and physicochemical properties of beer. J. Amer. Soc. Brew. Chem. 49. P.14-18.
75.Malowicki, M. G. and T. H. Shellhammer. 2005. Isomerization and degradation kinetics of hop (Humulus lupulus) acids in a model wort-boiling system. J of Agri and Food Chem. 53: 4434-4439.
76.Marcotte, M., A. R. Taherian Hoshahili, and H. S. Ramaswamy. 2001. Rheological properties of selected hydrocolloids as a function of concentration and temperature. Food Research International 34(8): 695-703.
77.Matta, Z., E. Chambers, J. M. Garcia, and J. M. Helverson. 2006. Sensory characteristics of beverages prepared with commercial thickeners used for dysphagia diets. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106(7): 1049-1054.
78.McAllister, S., S. Kruger, S. Doeltgen, and E. Tyler-Boltrek. 2016. Implications of variability in clinical bedside swallowing assessment practices by speech language pathologists. Dysphagia 31(5): 650-662.
79.Mclellan, M.R., L.R. Lind, and R.W. Kime. 1995. Hue angle determinations and statistical analysis for multiquadrant hunter L,a,b data. J. Food Quality 18: 235-240.
80.Meilgaard, M. 1999. Wort composition. In McCabe, J. T. (Ed). The Practical Brewer, third edtion Master Brewers Association of the Americas. P147-164.
81.Mendez-Montealvo, G., M. M. Sánchez-Rivera, O. Paredes-López, and L. A.
82.Bello-Pérez. 2006. Thermal and rheological properties of nixtamalized maize starch. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 40(1): 59-63.
83.Mosher, R. 2009. Tasting Beer: An Insider's Guide to the World's Greatest Drink.
84.Mukamal, K. J., A. Ascherio, M. A. Mittleman, K. M.Conigrave, C. A.Camargo, I. Kawachi, M. J. Stampfer, W. C. Willett, and E. B. Rimm. 2005. Alcohol and risk for ischemic stroke in men: the role of drinking patterns and usual beverage. Ann Intern Med. 142: 11-19.
85.Nelson, M. 2004. The Barbarian''s Beverage: A History of Beer in Ancient Europe. P1. Routledge. UK.
86.Niu, C.T., Y.P. Han, J.J. Wang, F.Y. Zheng, C.F. Liu, Y.X. Li, and Q. Li. 2018. Comparative analysis of the effect of protein Z4 from barley malt and recombinant Pichia pastoris on beer foam stability: Role of N-glycosylation and glycation. Int. J. Biol. Macromol 106: 241-247.
87.Nur Hazirah, M. A. S. P., M. I. N. Isa, and N. M. Sarbon. 2016. Effect of xanthan gum on the physical and mechanical properties of gelatin-carboxymethyl cellulose film blends. Food Packaging and Shelf Life 9: 55-63.
88.Nursten, H. 1986. Concentration and drying of foods. In: D.McCarthy (ed.), Ireland.
89.Oberholster, A., L. M. Carstens, and W. J. du Toit. 2013. Investigation of the effect of gelatine, egg albumin and cross-flow microfiltration on the phenolic composition of Pinotage wine. Food Chem. 138: 1275-1281.
90.Okada, Y., T. Iimure, K. Takoi, T. Kaneko, M. Kihara, and K. Hayashi. 2008. The influence of barley malt protein modification on beer foam stability and their relationship to the barley dimeric a-amylase inhibitor-I (BDAI-I)as a possible foam-promoting protein. J. Agr. Food Chem. 56: 1458-1464.
91.Ough, C. S. and M. A. Amerine. 1988. Method for analysis of musts and wines. J. Wiley.
92.Peng, L.W., M. J. Sheu, L.Y. Lin, C.T. Wud, H.M. Chiang, W.H. Lin, M.C. Lee, and H.C. Chen. 2012. Effect of heat treatments on the essential oils of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle). Food Chem. 136: 532-537.
93.Palmer, J.J. 2006. How to brew: Everything you need to Know to Brew beer right the first time.
94.Rao, M. A., P. E. Okechukwu, P. M. S. Da Silva, and J. C. Oliveira. 1997. Rheological behavior of heated starch dispersions in excess water: role of starch granule. Carbohydrate Polymers 334: 273-283.
95.Rao, M. A.and J. Tattiyakul. 1999. Granule size and rheological behavior of heated tapioca starch dispersions. Carbohydrate Polymers 38(2): 123-132.
96.Pérez-Serradilla, J. A. and M. D. L. de Castro. 2008. Role of lees in wine production: A review. Food Chem. 111(2): 447-456.
97.Rodríguez-Amaya, D.B. 2001. A guide to carotenoid analysis in foods. Washington, D. C. America.
98.Russ, N., B. I. Zielbauer, M. Ghebremedhin, and T. A. Vilgis. 2016. Pre-gelatinized tapioca starch and its mixtures with xanthan gum and ι-carrageenan. Food Hydrocolloids 56: 180-188.
99.Sharma, S. and T. V. R. Rao. 2015. Xanthan gum based edible coating enriched with cinnamic acid prevents browning and extends the shelf-life of fresh-cut pears. LWT - Food Science and Technology 62(1): 791-800.
100.Shi, J. and M.L.Maguer. 2000. Lycopene in tomatoes : chemical and physical properties affected by food processing. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 40:1-42.
101.Simpson, W. and P. Hughes. 1994. Stabilization of foams by hop-derived bitter acids. Chemical interactions in beer foam. Cerevisia Biotechnol. (Belgium). P39-44.
102.Singh, J., L. Kaur, and O. J. McCarthy. 2007. Factors influencing the physico-chemical, morphological, thermal and rheological properties of some chemically modified starches for food applications—A review. Food Hydrocolloids 21(1): 1-22.
103.Smith, R. J., D. Davidson, and R. J. H.Wilson. 1998. Natural foam stabilizing and bittering compounds derived from hops. J. Amer. Soc. Brew. Chem. 56(2): 52–57.
104.Sørensen, S. B., L. M. Bech, M. Muldbjerg, T. Beenfeldt, and K. Breddam. 1993. Barley lipid transfer protein 1 is involved in beer foam formation. Technical Quarterly- Master Brewers Association of the Americas. 30: 136-145.
105.Stephen, A. M., G. O. Phillips, and P. A. Williams. 2006. Food polysaccharides and their applications: 2nd Edition. In Bell, D. A., D. G. Coffey, and A. Henderson. Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives P80-147. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
106.Stevens, J. F., A. W. Taylor, and M. L. Deinzer. 1999. Quanitative analysis of xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids in hops and beer by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 832: 97-107.
107.Thomas, D.J. and W. A. Atwell. 1999. Starches. Minnesota: Eagan Press.
108.U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2018. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 1 April, 2018. Basic Report 14006, Alcoholic beverage, beer, light.
109.Van, Cleemput M., K. Cattoor, K. De Bosscher, G. Haegeman, D. De Keukeleire, and A. Heyerick. 2009. Hop (Humulus lupulus)-derived bitter acids as multipotent bioactive compounds. Journal of Natural Products 72: 1220-1230.
110.Verzele, M. 1986. 100 years of hop chemistry and its relevance to brewing. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 92: 32-48.
111.Vinson, J. A., M. Mandarano, M. Hirst, J. R. Trevithick, and P. Bose. 2003. Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods:  beers and the effect of two types of beer on an animal model of Atherosclerosis. J Agri Food Chem. 51: 5528-33.
112.William, P. A. and G. O. Philips. 2009. Handbook of hydrocolloids: 2nd Edition. In William, P. A. and G. O. Philips. Gum Arabic P252-273. India: Woodhead Publishing.

電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20240902)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔