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研究生:孫慶禎
研究生(外文):Ching-Jen Sun
論文名稱:從相互凝視到真實生命:菲利浦•迪克《高堡奇人》中的殖民、荒謬與存在
論文名稱(外文):From Mutual Gaze to Authentic Life: Colonialism, Absurdism, and Existentialism in Philip K. Dick''s The Man in the High Castle
指導教授:田偉文田偉文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Rudolphus Teeuwen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:存在主義荒謬主義殖民心理後殖民論述架空歷史小說高堡奇人
外文關鍵詞:ExistentialismAbsurdismColonial MentalityPost-Colonial DiscourseAlternative HistoryThe Man in the High Castle
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菲利浦 • 迪克在他的著作《高堡奇人》當中,創造了一個在二戰時,被日本帝國與納粹德國擊敗的美國。這篇論文旨在探討,在此故事設定中,殖民與被殖民者的殖民心理。殖民政策與治理不只需要依靠物質層面的投資,更深深的依賴想像建構與相互凝視。而這些殖民想像,最終都將因為與現實衝突而幻滅。在建構與想像幻滅之際,小說中的角色們都需要面對荒謬。就存在主義理論的角度而言,殖民心理的矛盾、被殖民者的自卑情節、與殖民者無法接受自身非正義統治與剝削(usurpation)的種種兩難,都是不良意志(bad faith)的展現。唯有面對自己的真實存在(Authenticity),小說中的角色才有辦法解開殖民的矛盾情結,並有尊嚴地活著。
這篇論文總共分成六個章節。第一章我將用班尼迪克 • 安德森(Benedict Anderson)的著作《想像共同體》(Imagined Communities)來解釋美國被滅國之下的被殖民白人,是如何透過想像來建構自己的國族認同。即便面對著日本帝國與納粹的高壓殖民統治,美國人們仍然共享著一定程度的民族想像。這個想像不僅鞏固被殖民者自身的認同,也作為是區分自我(us)與他者(others)的界線。
第一章描寫自我與他者的區別,第二章則是剖析自我與他者的相互應對。實施殖民統治時,不同文化與政治背景的人類族群,將不可避免地被納入同一個空間共處。由於沒有辦法完整並真實的了解他者,不同的政治群體往往依賴想像,來去彌補自我對於他者認知的不足。在這篇論文的第二章,我將應用愛德華•薩伊德(Edward Said)的《東方主義》(Orientalism),探討不同族群之間的權力政治與想像建構的交互關係。
佛朗茲 • 法農(Frantz Fanon)的《黑皮膚,白面具》(Black Skin, White Mask)則會被運用在這篇論文的第三章。殖民統治下的被殖民者,不但在社會階級的層次上被視為低劣,更受苦於殖民自卑情結(colonial inferiority complex)。作為一個心理醫生,法農的著作精確地剖析《高堡奇人》小說中,被殖民的白人,所罹患的心理自卑。小說中被殖民的白人,不時透過戴上日本人的面具,期待自己能和殖民者平起平坐,來擺脫自己的低劣。然而這個方法最後終將失敗,並且造成自卑者更嚴重的心理創傷,因為在最終,被殖民者被迫脫下面具時,白人發現自己將永遠被鎖在自己的「白」的枷鎖,無法透過戴上面具來自我抬升。
當被殖民者的被殖心理造成嚴重的心理創傷時,殖民者並沒有相對的平靜。在阿爾貝 • 梅米(Albert Memmi)的《殖民者與被殖民者》(The Colonizer and the Colonized)當中,梅米把目光轉向殖民者,並且提供了有力的論述,來解釋為何殖民體制終將走向失敗。當殖民體制使被殖民者心理受創之際,殖民者的心理也深深被殖民情節影響。當殖民者認知到自己在殖民體制下的獲利與階級,其實來自於壓迫、貶低、與不正義的篡奪政治經濟利益時,他們的心理也深陷於矛盾之中:沒有人能夠把另一個人貶低成動物時,同時感到心安理得。本篇論文的第四章,將討論殖民者的心理矛盾,與其矛盾導致的殖民失敗。
在這篇論文的五與第六章,我將運用阿爾貝 • 卡謬(Albert Camus)的荒謬主義理論(Absurdism)、與尚 • 保羅 • 沙特(Jean-Paul Sartre)的存在主義理論(Existentialism),來探討與解釋,殖民者與被殖民者的殖民情節與心理矛盾。卡繆所說的荒謬,意旨人無法連結自身和外在世界的心理困境。沙特則是著重在意識(consciousness)接受/否定自由與責任之後所產生的心理處境。最後,小說中的角色們都需要克服因「相互凝視」(mutual gaze)引起的「不良意志」(bad faith),並擁抱真實生命(Authenticity),才得以解除殖民體制導致的心理矛盾,有尊嚴地活著。
Abstract

In his novel The Man in the High Castle, Philip K. Dick creates an alternate universe where the USA is defeated and occupied by the Axis power after the Second World War. The aim of this thesis is to discuss the colonial mentality of the characters who belong to both the colonized and the colonizers. Colonial affairs rely deeply upon imagination and mutual gaze. As the imaginations eventually fail, the characters in the novel will have to face absurdity. In terms of existentialism, colonial dilemmas, such as colonized inferiority complex and colonizers’ inability to accept usurpation, are bad faith. In the end, I will apply existentialism and argue that only when the characters embrace Authenticity can they start to live a life of tranquility and dignity.
This thesis consists of six chapters. In chapter one, I will apply Benedict Anderson’s Imagined Communities to explain the nationhood of the colonized Americans. Although being conquered, the former USA citizens still share a finite and sovereign imaginative comradeship. This imagined community further solidifies the boundary that distinguishes the locals from the foreigners, Americans from Japanese/German, and us from them.
Colonial affairs involve people from different cultural and political backgrounds. Due to the lack of mutual understanding, different parties will inevitably perceive and construct the others according to their own imagination. In the second chapter of my thesis, I will apply Edward Said’s Orientalism, to argue that colonization involves not only material investments but also the imagined and fetishized values that mutually shape one another.
Frantz Fanon’s Black Skin, White Mask will be used in the third chapter of this thesis to explain the paradoxical coping mechanism of the colonized. Under colonization, the colonized Americans are inferior not only in terms of social hierarchy but also mentality. As a psychiatrist, Fanon vividly explains the inferiority complex that the local Americans greatly suffer. The characters in the High Castle eagerly wear Japanese masks in order to self-elevate. However, this method will eventually fail and traumatize the mask-wearers, since the white Americans will forever be trapped in their “Yankness.”
Not only do the coping mechanisms of the colonized fail, the colonizers will also suffer mental turmoil and colonial complexes. According to Albert Memmi’s The Colonizer and the Colonized, the colonial system is doomed to fail. Memmi’s work focuses on the mental failure of the colonizers. Colonization also traumatizes the colonizers because the practice of usurpation will not be rightfully accepted even by the rulers. One simply cannot treat the locals as human and animal at the same time. The exploitation-based privilege will eventually lead to the failure of the mentality of the Colonizers. Memmi’s work and the discussion of the complexes of the colonizers will construct my fourth chapter.
In the fifth and the sixth chapters, I will apply Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre’s theory of Absurdism and Existentialism to explain the failure of colonial complexes in detail. While Camus focuses on the absurd, or human’s inability to connect themselves to the universe, Sartre’s theory puts its emphasis on the practice/denial of freedom. In the end, the characters will have to overcome their bad faith oriented by mutual gaze, practice freedom of consciousness, and live authenticity.
Table of Contents:

論文審定書 ..................................................................................................................... i
Acknowledgments ........................................................................................................... ii
中文摘要 ........................................................................................................................ iii
Abstract ............................................................................................................................ v
Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1
Chapter One: Imagination within Boundary: Nationhood and Imagined Communities.. 9
Chapter Two: Imagination Beyond the Boundary: Orientalism Reversed .................... 29
Chapter Three: American Skin, Japanese Mask: The Colonized Cognition of Their Conquerors .......................................................................................... 47
Chapter Four: The Failure of Mutual Imagination: The Colonizer and the Colonized.. 56
Chapter Five: Facing the Absurd: Unbridgeable Gap between Self and World ............ 72
Chapter Six: Existence as Solution: From Bad-Faith To Authenticity .......................... 89
Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 91
Works Cited ................................................................................................................... 99
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. 2nd ed. London: Verso, 1991.
Ashcroft, Bill, et al. Post-Colonial Studies: The Key Concepts. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2000.
Bernasconi, Robert. How to Read Sartre. New York: Norton, 2007.
Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus. New York: Vintage, 1991.
—. The Rebel. New York: Penguin, 1984.
Cox, Gary. How to Be an Existentialist: or How to Get Real, Get a Grip and Stop Making Excuses. London: Continuum, 2011.
Dick, Philip K. The Man in the High Castle 1962. Boston: Mariner, 2017.
Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin White Mask. New York: Grove Press, 2008.
Hirakawa, Sukehiro. Japan’s Love Hate Relationship with the West. Kent: Global Oriental, 2012.
Memmi, Albert. The Colonizer and the Colonized. Folkestone: Beacon, 1957.
Moses, George L. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and Social Life in the Third Reich. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 2003.
Said, Edward W. Orientalism. New York: Vintage, 1979.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Anti-Semite and Jew. New York: Schocken, 1995.
—. Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology. Trans. Hazel E Barnes. New York: Routledge, 2003.
—. War Diaries: Notebooks from a Phony War, 1930-1940. Trans. Quintin Hoare. London: Verso, 2000.
—, and Philip Mairet. Existentialism and Humanism. Boston: Methuen, 2007.
Simmons, John L. “The Power of Small Things in Philip K. Dick’s The Man in the High Castle.” Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature 39.4 (1985): 261-75. Web. 24 April 2018.
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