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研究生:吳梅玲
研究生(外文):Mei-Ling Wu
論文名稱:再訪創傷,修復愛:看童妮‧莫里森之《最藍的眼睛》和《神佑孩子》
論文名稱(外文):Revisiting Trauma for Restoration of Love in Toni Morrison''s <i>The Bluest Eye</i> and <i>God Help the Child</i>
指導教授:陳福仁陳福仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Fu-jen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:隱喻思解敘事研究崇白文化創傷童妮‧莫里森《最藍的眼睛》《神佑孩子》
外文關鍵詞:The Bluest Eyemetaphorical Processnarrative studieswhite culturetraumaloveToni MorrisonGod Help the Child
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本論文試以創傷理論(trauma theory)及隱喻思解(metaphorical process)分析童妮‧莫里森的《最藍的眼睛》和《神佑孩子》中,非裔美國人所承受的歷史創傷和疏離的身分認同。《最藍的眼睛》和《神佑孩子》分別為莫里森的處女作和最新力作卻享有類似的題材,例如受虐的童年、過去的創傷經驗、疏離的身分認同及身體的暗喻等等,但是二本小說的結局卻因為對愛有不同的詮釋而大相逕庭。同樣是回顧著過去的創傷經驗,《最藍的眼睛》中的琵可拉(Pecola Breedlove)最終失去自我認可而迷失在藍眼睛的幻象,而《神佑孩子》新娘卻藉機找回缺失的自愛。因此,我認為莫里森的二本小說欲藉由再訪非裔美國人在小說中遭遇的歷史創傷並對創傷再次詮釋,引導非裔美國人重新探討自我認同和並取回長期所缺失的自愛。
論文共分五部分。緒論簡介《最藍的眼睛》和《神佑孩子》的主題和崇白文化(white culture)及非裔美國人的身分認同之關聯,並簡述二本小說的研究文獻之方向與主題及理論。第一章進一步探討《最藍的眼睛》和《神佑孩子》相關的研究理論,如創傷理論、集體回憶、暗喻思解等,勾勒出本文的理論框架。第二章分析《最藍的眼睛》主角琵可拉的遭遇,藉此一窺二十世紀的黑人社群在創傷羞愧(traumatic shame)中如何詮釋愛。此外,第二章也一併探討過去二十世紀的崇白文化對於非裔美國人的身分認同的壓迫,小說中,哺愛一家(the Breedloves)正是內化了崇白文化的美感標準,而不由自主地認為自己是醜惡的,也因此,琵可拉為了順應生存,才想像出自己得到了藍眼睛只為了融入崇白文化的標準中。然而,莫里森穿插的暗喻也暗示了非裔美國人在崇白文化中對於愛的渴望與形象,並藉由另一個黑人女孩克勞蒂亞(Claudia MacTeer)的回顧來反省黑人社群對於愛的曲解。第三章不僅探討《神佑孩子》主角新娘(Bride)的身體變化和暗喻,並闡釋新娘如何透過返老還童的身體來重新詮釋過去的兒時創傷(childhood trauma),藉此重拾愛人與自愛的能力。《神佑孩子》的時代背景設於二十一世紀,即便種族羞愧(racial shame)和膚色歧視(colorism)的觀念不再是主流,主角新娘卻從母親甜心(Sweetness)繼承了上一世紀的種族創傷,並藉由化妝品來偽裝自己,以便在崇白文化/崇白意識(white consciousness)中獲得認可。新娘的身體在文本中扮演關的符徵(the signifier)並幫助改變新娘的對愛的舊有認知,一開始在跟男友分手後她的身體逐漸返老還童外,她的身體還會一再的受傷,一再受到他人碰觸與照顧,藉此她將重新體會作為一個被愛的孩子/富有母愛的母親,再次反思過去童年所缺失的母愛,並在最後成為照顧者(caretaker),實踐愛的意義。此外,莫里森除了在《神佑孩子》使用了暗喻反映了非裔美國人在後族裔時代(post-racial era)對於自我的看法,她也複雜化小說中的敘述結構,運用了呼應敘事(call-and-response)和讀者對話,不僅使讀者參與文本意義的生產,並企圖在回顧歷史背景時得出新的詮釋及引導讀者批判對於愛的既定印象。
結論重申研究論點,並對比《最藍的眼睛》和《神佑孩子》之敘事結構的差異。然而《最藍的眼睛》和《神佑孩子》的最大區別並非只在於呼應敘事的使用,而正是對於探索愛的不同形式。莫里森試圖以她晚期小說來批評她早期作品中所架構對愛的概念。更重要的是,莫里森欲闡述,只有通過重新審視和回顧過去的創傷,才能重新詮釋愛及修復愛的能力。
This thesis aims at analyzing Afro-Americans historical trauma and alienated self-identity in Morrison’s first novel and her latest one—The Bluest Eye and God Help the Child—with the lens of trauma theory and the metaphorical process. Both novels share similar themes including child abuse, trauma experience, alienated selfhood, and metaphor of the body. Though both novels have explored the similar traumatic experience Afro-Americans undertake, their endings are opposite to each other because they interpret love in different ways. At the end of The Bluest Eye, Pecola loses self-identity and gets lost in the illusion of blue eyes; on the other hand, the end of God Help the Child presents that Bride has retrieved the lost self-love through reviewing her traumatic past. Thus, I believe Morrison’s novels attempt to guide Afro-Americans to reclaim the power of love through revisiting and reinterpreting the historical trauma they share.
This thesis is structured in five parts. In the introduction, I will illustrate the major themes of The Bluest Eye and God Help the Child and the relationship between white culture/white consciousness and Afro-Americans’ self-identity. Then, I would brief about the literature review, research topics, and related theory of two novels. In chapter one, my discussion aims to provide a further understanding of trauma theory, collective memory, and the metaphorical process so to construct my theoretical framework. In chapter two, I examine Pecola’s sufferings in The Bluest Eye and reveal how the black community defines love under the traumatic shame in the twentieth century. In addition, I would analyze the oppression of white culture on Afro-Americans’ self-identity in chapter two. For example, the Breedloves internalizes the white standard of beauty and regard themselves as ugly; thus, Pecola imagines a pair of blue eyes one herself to fit into white culture for survival. On the other hand, the use of Morrison’s metaphors also implies Afro-Americans’ desire for love and ideal forms of love in white culture. Through the review of another black girl Claudia, Morrison attempts to critique the black community’s distorted definition of love. In chapter three, I will examine the transformation and metaphor of Bride’s body. Also, I would illustrate how Bride restores the ability of love and self-love through interpreting her childhood trauma in her shrinking body. Even though God Help the Child sets in the twenty-first century when racial shame and colorism are no longer the mainstream cultures, Bride inherits the racial trauma of last century from her mother Sweetness. Thus, Bride dresses herself with cosmetic products to earn approval from white consciousness. Bride’s body is the essential signifier for her to update her past interpretation of love. Her body not only keeps shrinking after breaking up with her lover but repeatedly damages. When she is touched and tendered by others, she will learn to be a child who is loved by others as well as a loving mother. Moreover, Bride will review the mothering she has lost in childhood and becomes the caretaker to perform the essences of love. Morrison also inserts metaphors in God Help the Child to reflect Afro-Americans’ self-identity in the post-racial era. Morrison even complicates her narratives and employs the call-and-response narrative for readers not only to engage the process of meaning-production but to review the historical contexts. Most importantly, Morrison calls readers to challenge the established notion of love.
In the concluding chapter, I restate my thesis statements and compare the difference of narrative structure between The Bluest Eye and God Help the Child. What distinguishes God Help the Child and The Bluest Eye does not just rely on the call-and-response narrative but the way of exploring love. Morrison attempts to critique the form of love she established in her earlier works with her late novels. Most importantly, Morrison reveals that love could be reinterpreted and restored only by revisiting and reviewing trauma.
論文審定書----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------i
Acknowledgement----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii
摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii
Abstract---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------v
Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
Chapter One: Relationship between Trauma, Collective Memory, Metaphor, and AfroAmerican Studies----------------------21
Chapter Two: Reviewing Love from Traumatic Shame in The Bluest Eye----------------------------------------------------------------------47
Chapter Three: Restoration of Body as Healing Trauma in God Help the Child--------------------------------------------------------------81
Conclusion: Different Forms of Love in The Bluest Eye and God Help the Child------------------------------------------------------------111
Works Cited--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------117
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