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研究生:李曜倫
研究生(外文):Yao-Lun Lee
論文名稱:應用於CMOS影像感測器之具有增益自動判別機制之可程式增益放大器
論文名稱(外文):A Programmable Gain Amplifier with Auto Gain Control Mechanism for the CMOS Image Sensor
指導教授:郭可驥
指導教授(外文):Ko-Chi Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:可程式增益放大器動態比較器帶差參考電壓電路交換電容式放大器摺疊式疊接放大器
外文關鍵詞:programmable gain amplifierdynamic comparatorswitch capacitor amplifierbandgap reference circuitfolded cascade operational amplifier
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此可程式增益放大器(Programmable Gain Amplifier,PGA)與其周邊電路使用TSMC 0.18m製程,主要的電路由交換電容式放大器(Switch-capacitor Amplifier)和增益控制區塊(Gain Control Block)以及帶差參考電壓電路(Bandgap Reference Circuit)所組成。
此可程式增益放大器具有下列特點:
1. 具有增益控制區塊,此電路根據CMOS影像感測器(Image Sensor)所得的信號大小與參考電壓做比較後得出可用的放大倍率,使得電路在缺少外部切換增益訊號時,仍能藉由增益控制區塊產生可用之放大倍率。
2. 摺疊式疊接運算放大器採用單端輸出(Single-End)以節省面積消耗,大擺幅的輸出級設計進一步增加了輸出擺幅(Output swing)。
3. 使用帶差參考電壓電路,可以產生與溫度、電壓無關的參考電壓值,讓增益控制單元更精準的判斷出可用的放大倍率。
可程式增益放大器電路的工作電壓為1.8V,提供1、2、4、8等四種倍率進行切換,輸入範圍為0V~0.9V、輸出範圍為0.4V~1.4V,迴轉率為251 V/us,功耗為1.82mW。
In this thesis, a programmable gain amplifier for the CMOS image sensor is implemented by using the TSMC 0.18 m process technology. The main circuit is composed of the switch-capacitor amplifier, the gain control block, the bandgap reference circuit, and the control units. The following items show the major characteristic of the proposed programmable gain amplifier:
1. A gain control block proposed. It compares the image sensor output with the reference voltage, and produces the gain control code to control the PGA''s gain. By using the proposed block, the proposed PGA can operate independently without getting gain control signal from the external pin.
2. The folded cascade gain amplifier is used in the design. It uses a single-end output to save the area consumption; a larger swing output stage design further increases the output swing.
3. By using the bandgap reference circuit, it can generate a temperature coefficient voltage, which enable the gain control code to be operated more accurately
The programmable gain amplifier work in supply voltage 1.8V. It supply 1、2、4、8 times for switching. The PGA''s input common mode range is 0V~0.9V, output range is 0.4V~1.4V. The slew rate is 251V/us. The power consumption is 1.82mW.
論文審定書 i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 viii
Chapter 1. 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 論文架構組織 2
Chapter 2. CMOS影像感測器架構介紹 3
2.1 影像感測器 3
2.1.1. 像素陣列 4
2.1.2. 相關二次取樣電路 (Binary Search ADC) 4
2.1.3. 可程式增益放大器 6
2.1.4. 類比數位轉換器 7
Chapter 3. 目標架構設計實現 8
3.1 影像感測器之全電路架構設計 8
3.2 目標電路架構設計 11
3.3 可程式增益放大器 12
3.3.1. 摺疊式疊接運算放大器 12
3.3.2. 交換電容式放大器 17
3.4 增益控制區塊 20
3.4.1. 增益判別機制 20
3.4.2. 增益控制電路實踐 22
3.5 增益控制區塊 24
3.6 動態比較器 25
3.7 電壓穩定電路 26
3.8 帶差參考電壓電路 28
Chapter 4. 全電路佈局 31
4.1 參考電壓電路佈局圖 31
4.2 PGA單元 32
4.3 全電路佈局 33
Chapter 5. 模擬結果分析 34
5.1 摺疊式疊接放大器模擬(AC) 34
5.2 PGA各倍率模擬(AC) 35
5.3 動態比較器模擬 36
5.4 參考電壓電路模擬 37
5.4.1. 參考電壓對絕對溫度的模擬 37
5.4.2. 啟動電路模擬 37
5.5 穩壓電路模擬 38
5.6 全電路模擬 39
5.7 電路規格與比較 42
Chapter 6. 結論與未來改善 44
6.1 結論 44
6.2 未來改進方向 44
Reference 45
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[2]R. Nagulapalli, K. Hayatleh, S. Barker, S. Zourob, N. Yassine, Sriadibhatla Sridevi, “A bio-medical compatible self bias opamp in 45nm CMOS technology,” in 2017 International conference on Microelectronic Devices, Circuits and Systems (ICMDCS), 2017, pp. 1-4.
[3]Amol D. Shinde; Manish Sharma, “Low power, area efficient dynamic comparator with reduced activity factor,” in 2017 International Conference on Information, Communication, Instrumentation and Control (ICICIC), 2017, pp. 1-5.
[4]Xiangliang Jin; Zhibi Liu, “A 95mw, 12fps, 3.2-Mpixel CMOS Imager with Nonlinear Response Programmable Gain Amplifier to Enlarge Dynamic Range,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics, 2010, pp. 1-4.
[5]Ali Zadeh, “A 100MHz, 1.2V, ±1V peak-to-peak output, double-bus single ended-to-differential switched-capacitor amplifier for multi-column CMOS image sensors,” in 2016 14th IEEE International New Circuits and Systems Conference (NEWCAS), 2016, pp. 1-4.
[6]R. Akshaya, Siva Yellampalli Siva, “Design of an improved bandgap reference in 180nm CMOS process technology,” in 2017 2nd IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information & Communication Technology (RTEICT), 2017, pp. 521-524.
[7]Xuan-Quang Du; Anselm Knobloch; Markus Grözing; Matthias Buck; Manfred Berroth, “A DC to 10.1 GHz, 31 dB gain range control, digital programmable gain amplifier,” in 2016 German Microwave Conference (GeMiC), 2016, pp.144-147.
[8]M. Furuta; S. Kawahito; H. Okada, “Programmable gain amplifier with colour balancing for CCD image sensors,” IET Journals & Magazines, vol.152, pp.229-235, 2005.
[9]Yuichiro Yamashita; Hidekazu Takahashi; Shin Kikuchi; Keisuke Ota; Masato Fujita; Satoshi Hirayama; Taikan Kanou; Sakae Hashimoto; Genzo Momma; Shunsuke Inoue, “A 300mm wafer-size CMOS image sensor with in-pixel voltage-gain amplifier and column-level differential readout circuitry,” in 2011 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2011, pp.408-410.
[10]Xu Jiangtao; Li Binqiao; Zhao Shibin; Li Hongle; Yao Suying, “A linear stepping PGA used in CMOS image sensors,” Journal of Semiconductors, vol.30, no.2, 2009.
[11]Behzad Razavi. “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits,” 2nd ed. The McGraw-Hill companies, Inc, 2005.
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