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研究生:雷勝雲
研究生(外文):Shen-Yun Lei
論文名稱:選戰「笑」應: 笑容類型與真實性對競選看板廣告效果之影響
論文名稱(外文):Smile Effects in the Elections: The Influences of Smile Types and Sincerity on Campaign Billboard Advertising Effectiveness
指導教授:周軒逸周軒逸引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsuan-Yi Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:行銷傳播管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:267
中文關鍵詞:競選看板候選人臉部表情候選人特質笑容類型笑容真實性情緒傳染理論社會判斷理論性別刻板印象
外文關鍵詞:gender stereotypessocial judgmentsemotional contagionsmile sinceritysmile typescandidate traitscampaign billboardfacial expressions of candidates
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  在台灣的選舉期間,大街小巷隨處可見不同候選人的競選看板,且在所有競選活動中,競選看板是選戰中最早開始的行銷手段,期盼能藉此在選民心中留下印象。觀察生活周遭的形象看板,可以發現候選人為展現魅力,紛紛擺出各式笑容,因此,瞭解候選人臉部笑容表情對選民之候選人評估所造成的影響,以及何種表情能促發最高的投票意願,即為值得深入研究的議題。鑑此,本研究結合情緒傳染理論、社會判斷理論及笑容真實性之觀點,探討候選人臉部表情─笑容強度(燦笑vs.微笑vs.無表情)與笑容真實性(真實vs.虛假),經由情感機制與認知機制,是如何影響到選民對候選人的情感態度、認知態度與最終的投票意願。
本研究共執行三個實驗,實驗一、二針對不同性別的候選人驗證十個假說,實驗三則考量性別刻板印象的潛在影響,對中介機制進行重複檢測。研究結果發現:(1)女性候選人的燦笑會提升選民的愉悅情緒、溫暖感知,但對能力感知的正向影響則不穩定;(2)男性候選人的微笑會提升選民的能力感知;(3)就女性候選人而言,笑容強度可藉由喚起選民較高的愉悅情緒,進而提升情感態度與投票意願;或是藉由喚起選民較高的溫暖感知,進而提升能力感知、認知態度與投票意願;(4)就男性候選人而言,可以透過笑容強度喚起選民較高的能力感知,進而提升認知態度與投票意願;(5)對候選人來說,認知態度對投票意願的影響會大於情感態度;(6)展現「真實笑容」,相較於「虛假笑容」,會使選民產生較高的愉悅情緒、溫暖感知、能力感知;(7)女性候選人展露「虛假笑容」時,會弱化燦笑和微笑在愉悅情緒、溫暖感知、能力感知的效果差距;(8)選民對男、女性候選人的臉部笑容表情反應有別,可以候選人性別刻板印象的觀點解釋之。本研究結果為競選看板廣告中的人物圖像運用,提供理論貢獻及相關實務建議。
  During the elections in Taiwan, many political campaign billboards from different candidates are set up everywhere, and they are used to be the earliest marketing tool in all campaigns, with the purpose of leaving a deep impression on the voters. Observing candidates’ billboard image advertisementsi around us, you can see that candidates smile in different ways in order to show his/her charm. Therefore, understanding how facial expressions of smiles will influence the evaluation of voters, and which expression can elicit highest voting intentionsb is an important issue. This research integrates the theoretical perspectives from emotional contagion, social judgments, and sincerity of smile, arguing that facial expressions of candidates, smile intensity (broad smile vs. slight smile vs. neutral expression) and smile sincerity (genuine vs. false), can influence voter affective attitudes, cognitive attitudes, and voting intentions towards candidates through both affective and cognitive mechanisms.
This research conducted three experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 focus on candidates of different gender to test ten hypotheses. Experiment 3 considers the potential impact of gender stereotypes and re-tests the mediation mechanism of smile intensity effect. The results of this research indicate the following key findings. (1) For female candidates, broad smile elicits higher levels of pleasure and warmth perceptions in voters, but the positive influence on competence perceptions is unstable. (2) For male candidates, slight smile elicits higher levels of competence perceptions. (3) For female candidates, smile intensity effects on improving affective attitudes and voting intentions are mediated by higher levels of pleasure, and smile intensity effects on eliciting higher levels of competence perceptions and improving cognitive attitudes and voting intentions are mediated by higher levels of warmth perceptions. (4) For male candidates, smile intensity effects on improving cognitive attitudes and voting intentions are mediated by higher levels of competence perceptions. (5) For candidates, cognitive attitudes have greater effects on voting intentions than affective attitudes. (6) Candidates’ genuine smile elicits higher levels of pleasure, warmth perceptions and competence perceptions than false smile. (7) For female candidates, showing false smile would weaken the effect gap between broad smile and slight smile on pleasure, warmth perceptions and competence perceptions. (8) The perspective of candidate gender stereotypes can be used to explain the different responses of voters to smiling expressions displayed by candidates of different gender. Research results provide the theoretical contributions and practical advice to the application of character images in the campaign billboards.
目錄
論文審定書 i
誌謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 6
第三節 研究問題 12
第四節 研究目的 12
第貳章 文獻探討 14
第一節 臉部表情 14
一、臉部表情與情緒傳染 14
二、臉部表情與社會判斷 16
三、小結 18
第二節 競選廣告 19
一、競選廣告中的視覺圖像 19
二、競選廣告中的候選人圖像 20
三、小結 21
第三節 政治候選人之人格特質訴求 21
一、政治候選人的特質架構 21
二、政治候選人特質重要性 23
三、小結 24
第四節 笑容類型與真實性 25
一、笑容類型 25
二、真誠與虛假笑容 30
三、笑容真實性 32
四、小結 33
第參章 假說推論 34
第一節 研究架構 34
第二節 研究假說 35
一、候選人臉部表情促發的情感機制與認知機制 35
二、笑容真實性的主效果及干擾效果 42
第肆章 研究方法 44
第一節 樣本與實驗設計 44
第二節 實驗刺激、預試和前測 44
一、實驗預試 45
二、實驗前測 49
第伍章 實驗一 57
第一節 實驗刺激與程序 58
第二節 變數衡量 59
第三節 分析結果 62
第四節 討論 90
第陸章 實驗二 95
第一節 實驗刺激與程序 95
第二節 變數衡量 95
第三節 分析結果 96
第四節 討論 123
第柒章 實驗三 130
第一節 樣本與實驗設計 130
第二節 實驗刺激與程序 131
第四節 變數衡量 132
第五節 分析結果 135
第六節 討論 156
第捌章 結論與建議 161
第一節 研究發現 161
第二節 研究意涵 165
一、理論意涵 165
二、實務意涵 172
第三節 研究限制及未來研究方向 176
參考文獻 182
一、中文文獻 182
二、英文文獻 184
附錄一、預試問卷 202
附錄二、前測問卷 206
附錄三、正式問卷 215
實驗一問卷 215
實驗二問卷 223
實驗三問卷(女版) 231
實驗三問卷(男版) 241
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二、英文文獻
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