(100.26.179.251) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/12 20:06
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:楊力恒
研究生(外文):Yang, Li-Heng
論文名稱:電鍍陽極氧化鋁膜製備三維氧化銅與二氧化鈦複合奈米陣列降解染料類芬頓光催化劑
論文名稱(外文):Three Dimensional CuO/TiO2 Hybrid Nanorod Arrays Prepared by Electrodeposition in AAO Membranes as a Fenton-like Photo-catalyst for Dye Degradation
指導教授:陳力俊陳力俊引用關係闕郁倫
指導教授(外文):Chen, Lih-JuannChueh, Yu-Lun
口試委員:何頌賢張培俊
口試委員(外文):Ho, Johnny
口試日期:2018-11-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:材料科學工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:陽極氧化鋁類光芬頓反應半導體奈米柱陣列電鍍染料光降解
外文關鍵詞:Anodic aluminum oxidePhoto-Fenton like reactionsemiconductor nanorod arraytemplate-assisted electrodepositiondye photo-degradation
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:53
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
通過模板輔助製造低成本工藝的無貴金屬組成的三維氧化銅/二氧化鈦納米棒陣列混和異質結構並應用於染料降解的類光芬頓催化劑。通過電沉積法將氧化銅奈柱沉積在陽極氧化鋁模板內,並在不同溫度下退火,然後通過電子槍蒸發進行二氧化鈦薄膜沉積。在不同溫度下對氧化銅/二氧化鈦異質結構進行退火處理後,p型氧化銅和n型二氧化鈦形成p-n異質結。通過拉曼分析證實了氧化銅納米棒的隕石相和二氧化鈦的銳鈦礦相,而XRD分析證實了氧化銅和二氧化鈦的結晶度。對於氧化銅/二氧化鈦異質結構,分別通過EDS映射和EELS分佈來分析元素和組成的分佈。在加入雙氧水後,500瓦的汞氙弧光燈照射下的氧化銅/二氧化鈦混合結構比氧化銅納米棒更有效的降解羅丹明B。本研究證明了氧化銅納米棒長度對氧化銅納米棒光降解性能以及氧化銅/二氧化鈦異質結構的影響。本文還闡述了光芬頓催化劑在染料光降解中的作用機理和作用。優化的氧化銅/二氧化鈦納米棒陣列結構表現出迄今為止最高的光降解活性。具有高縱橫比,混合氧化銅/二氧化鈦納米棒陣列可以作為PEC水分解的優異光催化劑。
Three-dimensional (3D) CuO/TiO2 hybrid nanorods (NRs) arrays with noble-metal-free composition, fabricated by template-assisted low-cost processes, were used as a photo-Fenton-like catalyst for dye degradation. CuO NRs were deposited inside an AAO template by electrodeposition method and annealed at various temperatures, followed by TiO2 thin film deposition through E-gun evaporation. After annealing treatment of CuO/TiO2 heterostructure at different temperatures, p-type CuO and n-type TiO2 formed the p-n heterojunction. The tenorite phase of CuO NRs and anatase phase of TiO2 were confirmed by Raman analysis, whereas crystallinity of CuO and TiO2 was proved by XRD analysis. For CuO/TiO2 heterostructure, the elemental distribution and composition were analyzed by EDS mapping and EELS profile, respectively. In the presence of H2O2, CuO/TiO2 hybrid structure performed more efficiently than CuO NRs for Rhodamine B degradation under the irradiation of 500 W Mercury-Xenon arc lamp. This study demonstrated the effect of length of CuO NRs on the photo-degradation performance of CuO NRs as well as CuO/TiO2 heterostructure. The mechanism and role of photo-Fenton like catalyst in photo-degradation of dye was also illustrated in this work. The optimized CuO/TiO2 hybrid NR array structure exhibited the highest photo-degradation activity to date. With high aspect ratio, hybrid CuO/TiO2 NR-array can act as an excellent photocatalyst for PEC water splitting.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 7
Chapter 3 Experimental and Analytical Instruments 35
Chapter 4 Experimental Process 43
Chapter 5 Results and Discussion 49
Chapter 6 Conclusions 71
Chapter 7 Future prospect 72
[1] D. Paraschiv, C. Tudor, and R. Petrariu, "The textile industry and sustainable development: a Holt–Winters forecasting investigation for the Eastern European area," Sustainability, vol. 7, pp. 1280-1291, 2015.
[2] V. San, V. Spoann, and J. Schmidt, "Industrial pollution load assessment in Phnom Penh, Cambodia using an industrial pollution projection system," Science of the Total Environment, vol. 615, pp. 990-999, 2018.
[3] R. G. Saratale, G. D. Saratale, J.-S. Chang, and S. Govindwar, "Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes: a review," Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 42, pp. 138-157, 2011.
[4] H. J. H. Fenton, "LXXIII.—Oxidation of tartaric acid in presence of iron," Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions, vol. 65, pp. 899-910, 1894.
[5] J. Feng, X. Hu, and P. L. Yue, "Effect of initial solution pH on the degradation of Orange II using clay-based Fe nanocomposites as heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst," Water Research, vol. 40, pp. 641-646, 2006.
[6] A. A. Burbano, D. D. Dionysiou, M. T. Suidan, and T. L. Richardson, "Oxidation kinetics and effect of pH on the degradation of MTBE with Fenton reagent," Water Research, vol. 39, pp. 107-118, 2005.
[7] W. Lee and S.-J. Park, "Porous anodic aluminum oxide: anodization and templated synthesis of functional nanostructures," Chemical reviews, vol. 114, pp. 7487-7556, 2014.
[8] J. O'sullivan and G. Wood, "The morphology and mechanism of formation of porous anodic films on aluminium," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 317, pp. 511-543, 1970.
[9] H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, "Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina," science, vol. 268, pp. 1466-1468, 1995.
[10] F. Keller, M. Hunter, and D. Robinson, "Structural features of oxide coatings on aluminum," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 100, pp. 411-419, 1953.
[11] T. Hoar and N. Mott, "A mechanism for the formation of porous anodic oxide films on aluminium," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 9, pp. 97-99, 1959.
[12] O. Jessensky, F. Müller, and U. Gösele, "Self-organized formation of hexagonal pore arrays in anodic alumina," Applied physics letters, vol. 72, pp. 1173-1175, 1998.
[13] S. K. Thamida and H.-C. Chang, "Nanoscale pore formation dynamics during aluminum anodization," Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, vol. 12, pp. 240-251, 2002.
[14] G. Thompson, "Porous anodic alumina: fabrication, characterization and applications," Thin solid films, vol. 297, pp. 192-201, 1997.
[15] K.-L. Lai, M.-H. Hon, and C. Leu, "Fabrication of ordered nanoporous anodic alumina prepatterned by mold-assisted chemical etching," Nanoscale research letters, vol. 6, p. 157, 2011.
[16] H. Masuda, H. Yamada, M. Satoh, H. Asoh, M. Nakao, and T. Tamamura, "Highly ordered nanochannel-array architecture in anodic alumina," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 71, pp. 2770-2772, 1997.
[17] K. Surawathanawises and X. Cheng, "Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates," Electrochimica acta, vol. 117, pp. 498-503, 2014.
[18] W. J. Stępniowski, D. Zasada, and Z. Bojar, "First step of anodization influences the final nanopore arrangement in anodized alumina," Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, pp. 1416-1422, 2011.
[19] Y. Zhao, M. Chen, Y. Zhang, T. Xu, and W. Liu, "A facile approach to formation of through-hole porous anodic aluminum oxide film," Materials Letters, vol. 59, pp. 40-43, 2005.
[20] A. Li, F. Müller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gösele, "Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina," Journal of applied physics, vol. 84, pp. 6023-6026, 1998.
[21] J. Oh and C. V. Thompson, "The role of electric field in pore formation during aluminum anodization," Electrochimica Acta, vol. 56, pp. 4044-4051, 2011.
[22] S. Ono, M. Saito, and H. Asoh, "Self-ordering of anodic porous alumina induced by local current concentration: Burning," Electrochemical and solid-state letters, vol. 7, pp. B21-B24, 2004.
[23] K. Nielsch, J. Choi, K. Schwirn, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, "Self-ordering regimes of porous alumina: the 10 porosity rule," Nano letters, vol. 2, pp. 677-680, 2002.
[24] W. J. Stępniowski, A. Nowak-Stępniowska, A. Presz, T. Czujko, and R. A. Varin, "The effects of time and temperature on the arrangement of anodic aluminum oxide nanopores," Materials characterization, vol. 91, pp. 1-9, 2014.
[25] M. Tian, S. Xu, J. Wang, N. Kumar, E. Wertz, Q. Li, et al., "Penetrating the oxide barrier in situ and separating freestanding porous anodic alumina films in one step," Nano Letters, vol. 5, pp. 697-703, 2005.
[26] A. Saedi and M. Ghorbani, "Electrodeposition of Ni–Fe–Co alloy nanowire in modified AAO template," Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 91, pp. 417-423, 2005.
[27] A. Santos, L. Vojkuvka, J. Pallarés, J. Ferré-Borrull, and L. Marsal, "In situ electrochemical dissolution of the oxide barrier layer of porous anodic alumina fabricated by hard anodization," Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 632, pp. 139-142, 2009.
[28] C. Shuoshuo, L. Zhiyuan, H. Xing, Y. Hui, and L. Yi, "Competitive growth of branched channels inside AAO membranes," Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, pp. 1794-1798, 2010.
[29] G. Meng, Y. J. Jung, A. Cao, R. Vajtai, and P. M. Ajayan, "Controlled fabrication of hierarchically branched nanopores, nanotubes, and nanowires," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 102, pp. 7074-7078, 2005.
[30] A. Yin, J. Li, W. Jian, A. Bennett, and J. Xu, "Fabrication of highly ordered metallic nanowire arrays by electrodeposition," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 79, pp. 1039-1041, 2001.
[31] M. S. Sander, A. L. Prieto, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, and A. M. Stacy, "Fabrication of High‐Density, High Aspect Ratio, Large‐Area Bismuth Telluride Nanowire Arrays by Electrodeposition into Porous Anodic Alumina Templates," Advanced Materials, vol. 14, pp. 665-667, 2002.
[32] N. J. Gerein and J. A. Haber, "Effect of ac electrodeposition conditions on the growth of high aspect ratio copper nanowires in porous aluminum oxide templates," The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, pp. 17372-17385, 2005.
[33] G. Ali and M. Maqbool, "Fabrication of cobalt-nickel binary nanowires in a highly ordered alumina template via AC electrodeposition," Nanoscale research letters, vol. 8, p. 352, 2013.
[34] C. Iida, M. Sato, M. Nakayama, and A. Sanada, "Electrodeposition of Cu2O nanopyramids using an anodic aluminum oxide template," Int J Electrochem Sci, vol. 6, pp. 4730-4736, 2011.
[35] A. Ramazani, M. A. Kashi, M. Alikhani, and S. Erfanifam, "Fabrication of high aspect ratio Co nanowires with controlled magnetization direction using ac and pulse electrodeposition," Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 112, pp. 285-289, 2008.
[36] A. Balasubramanian, D. Srikumar, G. Raja, G. Saravanan, and S. Mohan, "Effect of pulse parameter on pulsed electrodeposition of copper on stainless steel," Surface Engineering, vol. 25, pp. 389-392, 2009.
[37] Y.-H. Lee, C. Leu, M.-T. Wu, J.-H. Yen, and K.-Z. Fung, "Fabrication of Cu/Cu2O composite nanowire arrays on Si via AAO template-mediated electrodeposition," Journal of alloys and compounds, vol. 427, pp. 213-218, 2007.
[38] D. Barreca, E. Comini, A. Gasparotto, C. Maccato, C. Sada, G. Sberveglieri, et al., "Chemical vapor deposition of copper oxide films and entangled quasi-1D nanoarchitectures as innovative gas sensors," Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 141, pp. 270-275, 2009.
[39] J. H. Ramirez, F. J. Maldonado-Hódar, A. F. Pérez-Cadenas, C. Moreno-Castilla, C. A. Costa, and L. M. Madeira, "Azo-dye Orange II degradation by heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction using carbon-Fe catalysts," Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 75, pp. 312-323, 2007.
[40] M. Janczarek and E. Kowalska, "On the origin of enhanced photocatalytic activity of copper-modified titania in the oxidative reaction systems," Catalysts, vol. 7, p. 317, 2017.
[41] V. Krishna, W. Bai, Z. Han, A. Yano, A. Thakur, A. Georgieva, et al., "Contaminant-Activated Visible Light Photocatalysis," Scientific reports, vol. 8, p. 1894, 2018.
[42] Y. Li, S. Sun, M. Ma, Y. Ouyang, and W. Yan, "Kinetic study and model of the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) by a TiO2-coated activated carbon catalyst: Effects of initial RhB content, light intensity and TiO2 content in the catalyst," Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 142, pp. 147-155, 2008.
[43] H. Tang, K. Prasad, R. Sanjines, P. Schmid, and F. Levy, "Electrical and optical properties of TiO2 anatase thin films," Journal of applied physics, vol. 75, pp. 2042-2047, 1994.
[44] J. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Feng, M. Li, and C. Li, "Importance of the relationship between surface phases and photocatalytic activity of TiO2," Angewandte Chemie, vol. 120, pp. 1790-1793, 2008.
[45] V. Etacheri, C. Di Valentin, J. Schneider, D. Bahnemann, and S. C. Pillai, "Visible-light activation of TiO2 photocatalysts: Advances in theory and experiments," Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, vol. 25, pp. 1-29, 2015.
[46] S. Abo-Farha, "Comparative study of oxidation of some azo dyes by different advanced oxidation processes: Fenton, Fenton-like, photo-Fenton and photo-Fenton-like," J Am Sci, vol. 6, pp. 128-42, 2010.
[47] A. Khataee, V. Vatanpour, and A. A. Ghadim, "Decolorization of CI Acid Blue 9 solution by UV/Nano-TiO2, Fenton, Fenton-like, electro-Fenton and electrocoagulation processes: A comparative study," Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 161, pp. 1225-1233, 2009.
[48] B. Ensing, F. Buda, and E. J. Baerends, "Fenton-like chemistry in water: oxidation catalysis by Fe (III) and H2O2," The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 107, pp. 5722-5731, 2003.
[49] R. G. Zepp, B. C. Faust, and J. Hoigne, "Hydroxyl radical formation in aqueous reactions (pH 3-8) of iron (II) with hydrogen peroxide: the photo-Fenton reaction," Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 26, pp. 313-319, 1992.
[50] Y. S. Jung, W. T. Lim, J. Y. Park, and Y. H. Kim, "Effect of pH on Fenton and Fenton‐like oxidation," Environmental technology, vol. 30, pp. 183-190, 2009.
[51] D. A. Hanaor and C. C. Sorrell, "Review of the anatase to rutile phase transformation," Journal of Materials science, vol. 46, pp. 855-874, 2011.
[52] R. Jain, M. Mathur, S. Sikarwar, and A. Mittal, "Removal of the hazardous dye rhodamine B through photocatalytic and adsorption treatments," Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 85, pp. 956-964, 2007.
[53] M. Sivakumar and A. B. Pandit, "Wastewater treatment: a novel energy efficient hydrodynamic cavitational technique," Ultrasonics sonochemistry, vol. 9, pp. 123-131, 2002.
[54] P. Smart and I. Laidlaw, "An evaluation of some fluorescent dyes for water tracing," Water Resources Research, vol. 13, pp. 15-33, 1977.
[55] T. J. Lampidis, S. D. Bernal, I. C. Summerhayes, and L. B. Chen, "Selective toxicity of rhodamine 123 in carcinoma cells in vitro," Cancer research, vol. 43, pp. 716-720, 1983.
[56] W. K. Yung, B. Sun, Z. Meng, J. Huang, Y. Jin, H. S. Choy, et al., "Additive and photochemical manufacturing of copper," Scientific reports, vol. 6, p. 39584, 2016.
[57] S. M. Kim and A. Vogelpohl, "Degradation of organic pollutants by the photo‐Fenton‐process," Chemical Engineering & Technology: Industrial Chemistry‐Plant Equipment‐Process Engineering‐Biotechnology, vol. 21, pp. 187-191, 1998.
[58] I. R. Bautitz and R. F. P. Nogueira, "Degradation of tetracycline by photo-Fenton process—Solar irradiation and matrix effects," Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 187, pp. 33-39, 2007.
[59] X. Dong, W. Ding, X. Zhang, and X. Liang, "Mechanism and kinetics model of degradation of synthetic dyes by UV–vis/H2O2/ferrioxalate complexes," Dyes and pigments, vol. 74, pp. 470-476, 2007.
[60] J. Zhang, P. Zhou, J. Liu, and J. Yu, "New understanding of the difference of photocatalytic activity among anatase, rutile and brookite TiO2," Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 16, pp. 20382-20386, 2014.
[61] S. L. Suib, New and future developments in catalysis: solar photocatalysis: Newnes, 2013.
[62] R. Zhang, X. Tian, L. Ma, C. Yang, Z. Zhou, Y. Wang, et al., "Visible-light-responsive t-Se nanorod photocatalysts: synthesis, properties, and mechanism," RSC Advances, vol. 5, pp. 45165-45171, 2015.
[63] Z.-H. Diao, J.-J. Liu, Y.-X. Hu, L.-J. Kong, D. Jiang, and X.-R. Xu, "Comparative study of Rhodamine B degradation by the systems pyrite/H2O2 and pyrite/persulfate: Reactivity, stability, products and mechanism," Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 184, pp. 374-383, 2017.
[64] S. Zaman, A. Zainelabdin, G. Amin, O. Nur, and M. Willander, "Efficient catalytic effect of CuO nanostructures on the degradation of organic dyes," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 73, pp. 1320-1325, 2012.
[65] N. Zhou, M. Yuan, D. Li, and D. Yang, "One-Pot Fast Synthesis of Leaf-Like CuO Nanostructures and CuO/Ag Microspheres with Photocatalytic Application," Nano, vol. 12, p. 1750035, 2017.
[66] L. Cheng, Y. Wang, D. Huang, T. Nguyen, Y. Jiang, H. Yu, et al., "Facile synthesis of size-tunable CuO/graphene composites and their high photocatalytic performance," Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 61, pp. 409-414, 2015.
[67] F. Chen, S. Xie, X. Huang, and X. Qiu, "Ionothermal synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles as efficient heterogeneous Fenton-like catalysts for degradation of organic pollutants with H2O2," Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 322, pp. 152-162, 2017.
[68] T. T. N. Phan, A. N. Nikoloski, P. A. Bahri, and D. Li, "Optimizing photocatalytic performance of hydrothermally synthesized LaFeO 3 by tuning material properties and operating conditions," Journal of environmental chemical engineering, vol. 6, pp. 1209-1218, 2018.
[69] X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Zhu, and J. Wu, "Efficient degradation of rhodamine B using Fe-based metallic glass catalyst by Fenton-like process," Chemosphere, vol. 117, pp. 638-643, 2014.
[70] X. Du, J. Wan, J. Jia, C. Pan, X. Hu, J. Fan, et al., "Photocatalystic degradation of RhB over highly visible-light-active Ag3PO4-Bi2MoO6 heterojunction using H2O2 electron capturer," Materials & Design, vol. 119, pp. 113-123, 2017.
[71] Y. Soltanabadi, M. Jourshabani, and Z. Shariatinia, "Synthesis of novel CuO/LaFeO3 nanocomposite photocatalysts with superior Fenton-like and visible light photocatalytic activities for degradation of aqueous organic contaminants," Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 202, pp. 227-241, 2018.
[72] J. Luo, Q. Chen, and X. Dong, "Prominently photocatalytic performance of restacked titanate nanosheets associated with H2O2 under visible light irradiation," Powder Technology, vol. 275, pp. 284-289, 2015.
[73] S. Guo, G. Zhang, and J. Wang, "Photo-Fenton degradation of rhodamine B using Fe2O3–Kaolin as heterogeneous catalyst: Characterization, process optimization and mechanism," Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 433, pp. 1-8, 2014.
[74] S. Guo, G. Zhang, Y. Guo, and C. Y. Jimmy, "Graphene oxide–Fe2O3 hybrid material as highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for degradation of organic contaminants," Carbon, vol. 60, pp. 437-444, 2013.
[75] X. S. Nguyen, G. Zhang, and X. Yang, "Mesocrystalline Zn-doped Fe3O4 hollow submicrospheres: formation mechanism and enhanced photo-Fenton catalytic performance," ACS applied materials & interfaces, vol. 9, pp. 8900-8909, 2017.
[76] N. Wang, Y. Du, W. Ma, P. Xu, and X. Han, "Rational design and synthesis of SnO2-encapsulated α-Fe2O3 nanocubes as a robust and stable photo-Fenton catalyst," Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 210, pp. 23-33, 2017.
[77] X. Li, J. Liu, A. I. Rykov, H. Han, C. Jin, X. Liu, et al., "Excellent photo-Fenton catalysts of Fe–Co Prussian blue analogues and their reaction mechanism study," Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 179, pp. 196-205, 2015.
[78] C. Chen, Y. Zhou, N. Wang, L. Cheng, and H. Ding, "Cu 2 (OH) PO 4/gC 3 N 4 composite as an efficient visible light-activated photo-fenton photocatalyst," RSC Advances, vol. 5, pp. 95523-95531, 2015.
[79] J. Cen, Q. Wu, M. Liu, and A. Orlov, "Developing new understanding of photoelectrochemical water splitting via in-situ techniques: A review on recent progress," Green Energy & Environment, vol. 2, pp. 100-111, 2017.
[80] J. Ran, J. Zhang, J. Yu, M. Jaroniec, and S. Z. Qiao, "Earth-abundant cocatalysts for semiconductor-based photocatalytic water splitting," Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 43, pp. 7787-7812, 2014.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔