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研究生:楊惠雯
研究生(外文):Yang, Hui-Wen
論文名稱:導航容許範圍與多點轉向模式性能評估研究
論文名稱(外文):A study of the Performance Evaluation between Guiding circle of Acceptance and multi-point steering mode
指導教授:李信德李信德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee, Sin-Der
口試委員:方銘川曾慶耀方志中
口試委員(外文):Fang, Ming-ChungTzeng, Ching-YawFang, Chih-Chung
口試日期:2018-12-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:運輸科學系
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:多點轉向模式(Multi-point steering mode)可容許轉向模式(Guiding circle of Acceptance steering mode)視線導航法平行修正導航法改良式平行修正導航法軌跡追蹤船舶操縱模擬系統UMS-2011
外文關鍵詞:Guiding circle of Acceptance steering modeMulti-point steering modeLine-of-Sight(LOS)guidance methodparallel correction(PC)guidance methodimproved parallel correction(IPC)guidance methodtrack-keepingUSDDC Maneuvering System(UMS-2011
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一般航海作業中通常以電子顯示與資訊系統(Electronic Chart Display and Information System, ECDIS)來做為船舶定位及海圖作業之載台,根據經驗進行船舶航路規劃,主要係綜合利用各類航儀所得之導航資訊、環境資訊、目的地資訊等來設計規劃船舶航線。航路規劃為船舶於航行前必須預先設定好的航行路線,標繪目標點設定並結合船舶路徑跟隨自航器來完成其航行任務。藉由先進的航海儀器相互結合運用下,計算出合理的路徑範圍以及導航目標點,可使船舶操縱與航海駕駛人員下達更為精確的命令,並可大幅降低駕駛人員因工作負荷量所造成之壓力,並確保航行安全,做更適當的決策,進一步也能降低油耗之損失達成節能環保之目的是為本研究之出發點。本研究先分析導航法所設定之目標點可容許範圍之導航成效進行探討,藉由目標點可容許範圍之設定變化來評估船舶導航轉向之性能,進而推演改以多點轉向模式來分析彼此(單點/多點)之導航優缺點。本研究分為兩個階段模擬分析,第一階段為原先設定之目標點,探討目標可容許範圍之影響性,稱之為導航可容許轉向模式(Guiding circle of Acceptance steering mode)。第二階段為透過航海人員經驗法則於轉向用舵點之選擇概念,將納入船舶迴旋性能構成多點轉向模式,再以原先目標點範圍作為基礎,透過船舶操縱模擬系統(USDDC Maneuvering System,UMS-2011)選定之船舶,模擬迴旋性能之迴旋圈數據,將數據結果與原先預設轉向點航路產生兩個交點,將此兩交點取代原先之單一目標點,所推導出一種新的導航模式,稱之為多點轉向模式(Multi-point steering mode)。兩階段之模擬,透過三種指標導航法則來進行分析評估其導航性能成效與變化,分別以視線導航法(Line-of-Sight, LOS)、平行修正導航法(Parallel Correction, PC)以及改良式平行修正導航法(Improved Parallel Correction, IPC)來進行試驗。本研究試驗結果,於可容許範圍試驗中,發現單點導航模式實驗結果,較佳的改善百分比分別落於模擬時間於1倍LPP設定值、平均航向誤差於2.5倍LPP設定值及平均用舵量於3倍LPP設定值時具有較佳之性能表現。試驗分析中亦驗證多點漸次轉向點模式,確實能改善船舶之航跡偏差量以及航向偏差量,亦即能使船舶保持更精確的航行於原設定之航路上。其中將轉向模式配合導航法中之研究,發現改良式平行修正導航法(Improved Parallel Correction, IPC)可將原本之單點導航模式近似於本研究所提之多點漸次轉向模式,試驗結果證明本研究所提出多點漸次轉向路徑導航上比起單點模式有使用上的優勢。
In general, the Electronic Chart Display and Information System(ECDIS)is used as a platform for the vessel positioning and chart work. For ocean going vessels, experienced mariners always adopted the information which were based on the modern navigation instrument to prepare the route planning such as navigation information, weather information and the port information for the destination. The route planning must to be done before sailing, and the generated waypoints were set to be followed. By combining the advanced navigation instruments and calculating the reasonable path range and navigation waypoints, the vessel maneuvering and mariner can issue more precise commands and it also can reduce the mental workload for the mariner. The main purpose of this research was trying to ensure safe navigation, make more appropriate decisions, and further reduce the loss of fuel consumption to achieve energy conservation and environmental protection at the same time. This study is divided into two stages of simulation analysis. The first stage of this study was evaluation of the navigation performance of the circle of acceptance range, and then evaluates the guiding performance of the multi-point steering mode(Single-point/multi-point steering mode performance comparison). The first stage used the original waypoint, and the influence of the circle of acceptance was discussed. Here we would like to call it the Guiding circle of Acceptance steering mode.
The second stage, the study adopted the concept from experienced mariners when they perform steering the vessel with the wheel over point. This will be incorporated into the multi-point steering mode, and the ship’s maneuvering parameter K and T based on experiment result from the ship maneuvering simulation system(USDDC Maneuvering System, UMS-2011). The selected ship C-1 container’s maneuverability will take into account, using the maximum rudder turning circle to generating two intersection points with the original preset route, replacing the original single waypoint with these two intersection points. This is called the multi-point steering mode. In this research work we will compare three kinds of guidance methods; which are the Line-of-Sight (LOS), parallel correction(PC)guidance method and the improved parallel correction (IPC) guidance method. During the first stage of experiments we found some interested results such as the better simulation time performance with the Lpp(Length between perpendiculars) setting value of one, the average heading error performance was 2.5 times the Lpp setting value, and better average rudder performance which 3 times the Lpp setting value. The experiments also reveal that the multi-point steering mode can really improve the vessel cross track error and heading error, which means that the vessel can maintain a more precise navigation path than using the single waypoint method.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT IV
目 錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究動機及目的 2
1.3文獻回顧 3
1.3.1船舶操縱性能研究 3
1.3.2船舶自航控制器 3
1.3.3船舶操縱模擬系統 4
1.3.4船舶導航法則研究 4
1.4論文架構 5
第二章 船舶操縱系統模式 6
2.1船舶操縱數學模式 6
2.2船舶操船模擬系統UMS-2011介紹 7
2.3 C-1貨櫃船介紹 10
2.4電腦船舶模擬系統參數K值及T值估測 11
2.4.1 K值及T值求法 11
2.4.2 C-1貨櫃船K值及T值估測 13
2.5舵機之限制條件 14
第三章 自航控制器與導航法則 15
3.1自航控制器 15
3.1.1 IMC內模式控制器架構 15
3.1.2 IMC設計參數β值挑選測試 16
3.2電腦船舶模擬架構 20
3.2.1 電腦數值模擬架構MATLAB Simulink平台 20
3.2.2 數值模擬迴旋圈測試 22
3.2.3 目標點可容許範圍設計架構 28
3.2.4 單點模式及多點漸次轉向模式初步設計概念圖 30
3.3導航法則 31
3.3.1 視線導航法(Line-of-Sight, LOS) 31
3.3.2平行修正導航法(Parallel Correction, PC) 32
3.3.3改良式平行修正導航法(Improved Parallel Correction, IPC) 33
第四章目標點可容許範圍探討數值模擬 35
4.1 電腦模擬-視線導航法軌跡追蹤試驗 35
4.2 電腦模擬-平行修正導航法軌跡追蹤試驗 40
4.3 電腦模擬-改良式平行修正導航法軌跡追蹤試驗 45
4.4 小結-電腦模擬實驗內容與結果討論 50
4.4.1電腦數值模擬數值分析圖 50
4.4.2電腦數值模擬分析表 54
第五章 多點漸次轉向路徑點探討數值模擬 56
5.1 電腦模擬-視線導航法軌跡追蹤試驗 56
5.2 電腦模擬-平行修正導航法軌跡追蹤試驗 61
5.3 電腦模擬-改良式平行修正導航法軌跡追蹤試驗 66
5.4 小結-電腦模擬實驗內容與結果討論 71
5.4.1電腦模擬數值分析圖 71
5.4.2電腦模擬數值分析表 75
5.5 各導航法單點模式與多點漸次轉向模式之比較分析 77
第六章 結論與建議 79
6.1 結論 79
6.2 建議 80
參考文獻 81
附錄A 83
符號表 86
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