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研究生:王宇迪
研究生(外文):Yu-Di Wang
論文名稱:應用多目標基因演算法於海綿城市開發之研究
論文名稱(外文):Apply Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm To Develop The Sponge City
指導教授:何昊哲
指導教授(外文):Hao-Che Ho
口試委員:朱佳仁游進裕
口試委員(外文):Chia-Ren ChuSinite C Yu
口試日期:2019-07-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:土木工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:低衝擊開發海綿城市多目標基因演算法暴雨管理模式蒙地卡羅試驗
DOI:10.6342/NTU201901893
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由於氣候變遷和高度城市化的挑戰下,現代都市所面臨的水環境風險日趨嚴峻,傳統的雨水管理概念難以應對未來都市變化產生之威脅。有鑑於此,雨水管理的觀念逐漸轉變成彈性適應環境變化和洪澇災害的海綿城市策略,其核心理念為低衝擊開發(LID),通過分散式的在源處理設計,增加集水區的入滲或蓄水空間,減少地表逕流,降低都市開發對水文迴圈的影響。本研究結合都市規劃與LID設計概念來探討區域透水與滯洪能力對都市韌性的影響。
本研究以林口特定區的A7重劃區為為研究區域,使用美國環保署(US EPA)開發的暴雨管理模式(SWMM),按照該地區都市規劃的土地利用配置合理的LID設施,以設計的不同降雨條件進行模擬,探討LID和滯洪池的消減洪峰與地表逕流的效益。結果顯示,LID在短延時低重現期的降雨中能發揮較好的效果,當重現期大於10年時效果不如滯洪池。若以單位成本來看,綠屋頂的減洪效益最好,若從單位面積來看,配置雨水收集系統的效果最好。針對整個都市區域的LID設計,需要考量到最佳配置以達到成本收益最大化。本研究通過多目標基因演算法(MOGA),探討在不同的成本情況下,LID的最佳減洪效益、消減逕流效益與其空間上的配置。結果顯示欲消減洪峰則需要將LID優先配置於排水幹線中上游,欲消減地表逕流則應使用成本效益較高的LID設施與排水系統無關。整體而言LID配置80%的可配置面積即可達到100%的效果。最後以蒙地卡羅試驗隨機改變都市形態,結果顯示欲消減洪峰可在不透水率較高的地方配置較高比例的LID,而消減地表逕流與不透水率無關,因此地表逕流量更適合作為都市設計LID的指標。
Facing the challenges of climate change and high urbanization, the water environment risks faced by modern cities are becoming more and more serious. The traditional concept of stormwater management is hard to cope with the threat of future urban changes. in this regard, the concept of stormwater management has gradually turned into a sponge city strategy that resiliently adapts to environmental changes and floods. The core concept is low-impact development (LID), which increases the infiltration of catchment area or water storage space and reduces surface runoff through distributed source-processing design, alleviating the impact of urban development on the hydrological cycle. This study combines urban planning and the LID design concept to explore the impact of regional permeable and detention capacity on urban resilience. The study area is based on the high-density development of the Yonghe district of New Taipei City. The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) storm water management model (SWMM) is used to select suitable LID facilities or detention tanks based on the land use characteristics of the area. Rainfalls with different return periods and different delays were simulated. The results show that LID can be most effective in low return period and short-delay rainfall, and the use of detention tanks is more effective in rainfall above 25-year return period. In addition, in the case of limited space, rainwater should be used for collection; in the case of limited costs, green roofs should be used to maximize their effectiveness.
This study designates the A7 consolidation area in the specific area of Linkou as the research area and employs the storm water management model (SWMM) developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Accordingly, the present study explores the efficacy of LID and subtractive peak flow and surface runoff of detention ponds by design reasonable LID facilities according to the urban planning of the area and simulating different rainfall conditions.The results show that LID can produce better results in rainfall of short-delay and return periods, and the results are not as significant as the detention when the return period is more than 10 years. From the perspective of unit cost, the green roof boasts the best peak flow reduction efficiency. While from the perspective of unit area, the stormwater collection system produces the best result. For the LID design of the entire metropolitan area, the best configuration needs to be considered to maximize cost-benefits. This study discusses the optimal peak flow reduction and subtractive runoff efficacy of LID and its spatial configuration in different costs by virtue of multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The results show that in order to reduce the subtractive peak flow, LID should be preferentially configurated in the upstream and downstream of the drainage trunk. To reduce surface runoff, highly cost-effective LID facility should be employed regardless of the drainage system. In general, 80% configurable area of LID serves to achieve 100% effect. Finally, the urban morphology has been randomly changed by virtue of the Monte Carlo test. The results show that in order to reduce the peak flow, a higher proportion of LID can be configurated in areas with higher water impermeability, and the reduction of surface runoff is impertinent to the impervious rate. Therefore, surface runoff is a more appropriate LID indicators of urban design.
誌謝 I
摘要 II
ABSTRACT III
目錄 V
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XII
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究內容 4
1.3.1 研究架構 4
1.3.2 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 海綿城市 6
2.1.1 都市雨水管理模式發展 6
2.1.2 海綿城市簡介 8
2.2 低衝擊開發 10
2.2.1 低衝擊開發簡介 10
2.2.2 低衝擊開發數值研究 15
2.2.3 低衝擊開發最佳化研究 20
第三章 研究方法 24
3.1 SWMM之模擬機制 24
3.1.1 地表逕流模組 25
3.1.2 輸水幹線模組 27
3.1.3 LID元件 33
3.2 多目標基因演算法 37
3.2.1 基因演算法的基本構架 38
3.2.2 適應函數(Fitness Function) 39
3.2.3 基因(Gene)與決策變數(Decision variable) 39
3.2.4 初始族群(Initial Population)與世代 40
3.2.5 階級(Rank)與競爭(Tournament) 40
3.2.6 交配(Crossover) 41
3.2.7 突變(Mutation) 42
3.2.8 擁擠距離(Crowding distance) 42
3.2.9 傳播值(Spread) 43
3.2.10 停止準則 43
3.2.11 柏拉圖邊界(Pareto frontier) 44
3.2.12 基因演算法演算過程 45
第四章 模式建立 46
4.1 研究區域 46
4.1.1 研究區域概述 46
4.1.2 都市計劃與發展 47
4.1.3 氣象水文 50
4.1.4 排水系統 50
4.2 SWMM模式建立 52
4.2.1 雨量(rain gage) 52
4.2.2 子集水區(subcatchment) 55
4.2.3 人孔(junction) 58
4.2.4 管線(conduit) 58
4.2.5 出流條件 59
4.2.6 LID元件 (LID control) 59
第五章 評估不同降雨條件LID效益 63
5.1 模擬情景 63
5.1.1 LID策略 63
5.1.2 BMPs策略 63
5.2 降雨條件對LID與滯洪池消減洪峰效果影響 66
5.3 降雨條件對LID與滯洪池消減地表逕流效果影響 69
5.4 不同降雨下LID效益分析 71
5.4.1 LID消減洪峰效益分析 71
5.4.2 LID削減地表逕流效益分析 75
第六章 評估LID的空間配置 79
6.1 條件設定 79
6.1.1 LID的配置假設 79
6.1.2 合理化分區 80
6.1.3 設計降雨 81
6.2 不同區域配置LID對洪峰流量與地表逕流量之影響 81
6.3 都市消減洪峰LID最佳配置 84
6.4 都市削減地表逕流LID最佳配置 90
第七章 蒙地卡羅試驗 97
7.1 蒙地卡羅試驗參數 97
7.2 蒙地卡羅試驗分區 98
7.3 蒙地卡羅試驗結果 99
7.3.1 平均不透水率分佈 99
7.3.2 開發程度與LID最佳配置比例之關係 100
7.3.3 LID配置比例空間分佈特性 101
第八章 結論與建議 104
8.1 結論 104
8.2 建議 106
參考文獻 108
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