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研究生:余欣怡
研究生(外文):HSIN-YI YU
論文名稱:東臺灣中部海域瑞氏海豚的分佈移動與棲地及群體特徵的關係
論文名稱(外文):Variation in Distribution and Movement of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) Related to Habitat and Group Characters in East-central Coastal Waters of Taiwan
指導教授:周蓮香周蓮香引用關係
口試委員:莫顯蕎姚秋如王明智邱春火楊瑋誠
口試日期:2019-07-25
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生態學與演化生物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:空間分布群體組成公民科學焦點追蹤棲地利用
DOI:10.6342/NTU201903983
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瑞氏海豚廣泛分佈在全球溫帶到熱帶水域,臺灣東部海域也有豐富的瑞氏海豚目擊記錄,也是花東賞鯨活動中主要觀賞的種類之一。本論文試圖將瑞氏海豚的分佈與棲地特徵進行量化的分析,並試圖以模式與焦點追蹤群體來了解其棲地利用。首先,根據1998-2014年間花蓮港與石梯港的賞鯨紀錄來分析海豚的群體特徵與空間分佈的關係,研究區域兩地的水深分佈無明顯的差異,主要分佈在300至1500公尺水深的海域,群體大小與水深分佈無關,但母子對群體則停留在水深較淺的近岸區域減少幼體被捕食的風險及母豚覓食所費的能量。
此外並嘗試使用物種分布模式-最大熵函數來瞭解環境因子與物種出現的關聯。使用瑞氏海豚於石梯海域出沒的目擊紀錄及當地網格化的環境因子數據,進行模式運算。結果顯示與河口間距離、表層溫度與離岸距離等變數有明顯影響,地形的變異可能與生物因子(食物豐度) 的關聯,未來可能透過衛星影像數據來驗證。空間分布模式也透過找出關鍵環境因子後,將預測其他可能的潛力棲地。
除了賞鯨活動的點狀目擊紀錄外,也分析2010-2012年在石梯海域由焦點追蹤觀察所記錄的瑞氏海豚的連續每五分鐘的觀測單位,來分析海豚群體的游泳速度、泳向與行為模式的…. 海豚群體大小和組成與游泳速度無顯著差異(平均泳速為4.1 ± 0.1 公里/小時),但不同的行為狀態,則明顯改變泳速與游泳模式,移動或社交活動時主要以往東南至西南間的方向,而中午前後的海豚群體休息時則泳速較慢且方向改變較多。
根據論文數據中的分析結果,可歸納出瑞氏海豚在東台灣中部海域除了覓食外,也是重要的育幼和生殖區,更提供了安全的休息和移動廊道,因此可推測此海域為瑞氏海豚的關鍵棲地。
Risso’s dolphin occurs in tropical and temperate waters worldwide, and is one of the most common cetacean species in Taiwanese waters. This study attempted to reveal its distribution in water-depth ranges and variations in group size and composition (with or without mother-calf pairs). Based on sighting records from experienced whale-watching guides on board the whale-watching boats operated on eastern Taiwan, 1630 sightings of Risso’s dolphin were recorded from 3939 touring trips near Hualien County from 1998 to 2014. . Comparing the frequency distribution of water depth between ship tracks and dolphin sightings, we found that Risso’s dolphin commonly occurred on the continental shelf and slope, and mainly stayed at waters of 300~1500 m in water depth, with a mean of 862.1 ± 12.3 m (standard error). The frequency distribution of water depth showed a significant difference between sites (deeper in the Shirti area than in the Hualien area), but no significant difference was detected among various group sizes. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution significantly varied with group composition, but not with group size. Groups with mother-calf pairs stayed in significantly shallower water, which was proposed to be related to predator avoidance. In addition, the large fluctuation in annual sighting ratios of Risso’s dolphin that ranged 0.1~ 0.7 during the 17-year period may be related to variation in prey abundances, which require future investigation.
We also took whale-watching sighting data achieved during the years of 1998-2014, at two areas in the central eastern coast of Taiwan. We used ecological niche modelling (Maxent) to analyze Risso’s dolphin habitat preference with topographic and climatic factors. Our results demonstrate that Risso’s dolphins frequently occurred in deep water habitats along the edge of continental shelf in the study area. The important variables associated with their distribution include water depth, the distance from river mouth and sea surface temperature.
This study attempted to understand the movement paths, including the swimming speed, movement direction, and linearity were compared among groups of different sizes and groups with and without mother–calf pairs. Based on the focal group follows conducted on the boat surveys during 2010-2012. Mean speed between two 5-min units (leg-speed) of Risso’s dolphin groups was 4.1 ± 0.1 km/hr (S.E. n=420, range: 0.1-13 km/hr). No difference in speed in group size classes and composition. Most groups heading moved to south and with high linearity.
This study shows that the movement range of Risso’s dolphins is wide in the eastern sea area of Taiwan, and the range of activities overlaps with the geographic locations of the sighting spots, indicating the importance of this habitat for Risso’s dolphins.
口試委員會審定書…………………………………………………………….… i
致謝……………………………………………………………………………….. ii
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………….… iii
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………….……. iv
Chapter 1. Introduction.
1.1 Risso’s dolphins …………………………………………………...…… 01
1.2 Distribution and Abundance of Risso’s dolphins in Taiwan……...….… 02
1.3 Feeding Ecology of Risso’s dolphins in Taiwan………………....…..… 04
1.4 Life history, postnatal morphological and genetic characteristics.….…. 05
1.5 Group Size, behaviours and social structure…………….……………... 07
1.6 Study aims of this dissertation………….……….……….……….…..... 10
1.7 References ………….……………….……….…...………..…….…..… 12
Chapter 2. Distribution of Risso''s dolphin (Grampus griseus) in the east-central coastal waters of Taiwan based on whale watching records.
2-1. Introduction …………………………………..………..………….…… 24
2-2. Materials and Methods……………………………..……….…….….… 26
2-3. Results…………………………………………………...…….…..…… 28
2-4. Discussion ………………………………………….………….…….… 31
2-5. References ……………………………………..….…………….…...… 38
Chapter 3. Spatial distribution factors of Risso''s dolphin (Grampus griseus) in the east-central coastal waters of Taiwan by using Maximum Entropy Model.
3-1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………… 49
3-2. Materials and Methods……………………………………………… 50
3-3. Results…………………………………………………………………………………… 52
3-4. Discussion ………………………………………………………………………… 53
3-5. References ………………………………………………………………………… 55
Chapter 4. Movement patterns and habitat use of Risso''s dolphin (Grampus griseus) in the east-central coastal waters of Taiwan.
4-1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………… 61
4-2. Materials and Methods……………………………………………… 62
4-3. Results……………………………………………………………………………… 66
4-4. Discussion …………………………………………………………………… 67
4-5. References …………………………………………………………………… 70

Chapter 5. Conclusions ……………………………………………………… 82
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Chapter 2.
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