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研究生:鍾明光
研究生(外文):Ming-Kuang Chung
論文名稱:公民共構空間資訊對於環境經營管理之效益與限制
論文名稱(外文):Citizen-contributed Geospatial Information for the Environmental Management: Benefits and Limitations
指導教授:蔡博文蔡博文引用關係
口試委員:袁玫范毅軍盧道杰洪伯邑
口試委員(外文):May Yuan
口試日期:2019-07-22
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:地理環境資源學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:地理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:198
中文關鍵詞:地理資訊科學公民共構空間資訊公眾參與地理資訊系統地理群眾外包地理公民科學群眾外包地理知識
DOI:10.6342/NTU201904069
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本研究嘗試從地理資訊與社會 (GIS and Society) 的研究脈絡,檢視公眾參與地理資訊系統 (Public Participation GIS)、地理群眾外包 (Geo-Crowdsourcing) 以及地理公民科學 (Geographical Citizen Science) 等三種具有參與性質的空間資訊生產模式,及其所產製的公民共構空間資訊 (Citizen-contributed Geospatial Information, CGI),應用於環境經營管理時的效益與限制。
由於CGI的產製與應用涉及社會參與 (social inclusion)、空間資訊科技 (geospatial information technologies, GITs) 及知識生產 (knowledge generation) 等多重學理範疇。故本研究首先藉由耙梳現有文獻討論,以:創用者 (producer)、資訊內容 (contents)、工具/服務 (tool/service)、參與類型 (participation) 及知識解譯 (knowledge discovery) 等五個面向,建構一個 CGI 產製 (produce) 的分析架構。同時,為了探究 CGI 的流通應用 (circulate) 對環境經營管理的效益,本研究以三個實務案例為基礎,檢視不同產製機制下的 CGI 如何促進環境經營管理時的議題釐清、知識生產與決策制訂,從而歸納 CGI 的應用潛力及限制。以下分別就產製以及流通等面向,說明本研究的發現。首先在 CGI 的產製機制上:
創用者的角色具有多重性,並無法單純地以專家/常民的二分法進行解構,且不同的創用者在資訊建置的內容上,亦存有互補/協力關係;尤其,科技志工的角色浮現,也協助扮演了專家與長民間的橋樑。最後,創用者間的信任建構,更是促使 CGI 產製機制能夠持續運作的核心要件。此外,創用者在 CGI 產製程序中的參與類型是一個動態過程;創用者的參與程度除了個人動機之外,也常隨著議題的進展而有所提升,甚至有時會扮演產製機制的主導者。所以,一個良善的參與程序設計,必須尊重創用者間的多元視角,建立彼此的信任與對話,才能確保 CGI 的成果品質。
GITs 的適當選用,能提升創用者在環境資訊產製的能動性,亦會影響資訊產製的內容、效率及品質。GeoWeb 扮演了CGI 產製與視覺化的基礎設施 (infrastructure),其背景資料庫的豐沛度對資料的空間化具有明確效益,然而對 GeoWeb 的高度依賴,也讓 CGI 產製需面對商業機制的挑戰。此外,部分非結構化的在地知識如何賦予適當的空間屬性,以使其能與其他環境因子進行對話/比較,亦是 CGI 產製在 GITs 選用時所應注意的面向。
CGI 的資訊內容橫跨了結構-非結構間的多重類型,而其資料意涵亦不能等同視之。結構化的空間資料能快速地導入科學分析的模式中,從而解構現象分布的位置與變化趨勢。非結構化資料卻包含了更多創用者對於環境的觀察與表述,甚至具有更強的參與動機與意見訴求,需從社會面向細緻解析其內涵。
在 CGI 的資訊解譯過程中,首要的課題就是資料品質的確保,而創用者的積極參與可協助建立資訊品質的管控機制與效率。同時,在資料開放性高與進用便利的前提下,創用者則有較高的參與度。此外,CGI 的資訊解譯涉及多樣性的空間分析方法,且其參數選用具有一定程度的專業性,非一般民眾可以涉入;所以,如何增進資料處理方法的透明性,並在參數選用上涵納在地的觀點,亦是後續 CGI 產製的挑戰之一。
其次,在CGI 的流通應用:
因為 CGI 是一種經由公眾參與所產製的空間資訊,所以能在環境經營的場域中滿足科學資料與公眾參與的雙重需求;CGI 具現 (instantiate) 權益關係人的環境知識與發展意向,除能協助描述環境問題的區位,也能與其他環境資訊比對,促進問題辨識與後續策略的研擬。此外,在政策的施行與評估階段,持續進行的 CGI 產製與流通機制亦可以視為一種環境經營管理的效益評估,能有效協助權益關係人理解政策施作之後的影響,甚至進行另一波的問題辨識與政策修訂。
CGI 做為一種具有社會意涵的空間資訊,其流通應用更可視為一個權益協商以及共識凝聚的過程;CGI 的流通應用,讓在地觀點/意見能夠實質進入決策的程序與權力,甚至影響環境治理中的肯責 (accountability) 與成果分配,進而創造了環境治理品質的提升。然而,CGI 對於環境經營管理的影響,除了立基於資訊產製與流通的透明度,也需要透過持續的權益關係人參與、協商及培力過程,始能逐步落實於決策機制內。
整體而言,本研究所提出的 CGI 產製分析架構,能用於系統性評估 CGI 產製在技術 (technical) 及社會 (social) 面向的特徵,掌握創用者動機 (motivation)、GITs應用與地理知識生產間的連動關係,進而協助釐清 CGI 產製特徵對於的資料品質 (quality) 及可用性 (usability) 的影響。立基於前述的產製分析,本研究的流通分析架構,則進一步協助描繪 CGI 的資訊內容與特質,如何能藉由 GITs的視覺化再現,以嵌入現有的環境經營管理機制,並影響權益關係人的知識及意見整合,並從而呈現 CGI 在環境資源經營管理的應用潛力。
In this study, three types of geospatial information generation modes that allow participation: Public Participation GIS (PPGIS), Geo-Crowdsourcing, and Geographical Citizen Science, were examined from the research perspective of GIS and society. In addition, the benefits and limitations of using citizen-contributed geospatial information (CGI) on environmental operation and management were examined.
As the production and application of CGI involves social inclusion, geospatial information technologies (GITs), and knowledge generation, our study first compiled all the existing literature and constructed a CGI production analysis framework based on producer, contents, tool/service, participation, and knowledge discovery. Further, to examine the benefits of CGI circulation on environmental operation and management, we used three practical cases as a basis to examine how CGI originating from different production mechanisms can aid environmental operation and management, knowledge production, and decision making, thereby realizing the application potential and limitations of CGI. The following section describes the findings of our study in the field of CGI production and circulation. Firstly, with regard to the mechanism of CGI production:
The role of the producer is diverse and cannot be deconstructed simply according to the dichotomy of experts and lay people. There exists a complementary/cooperative relationship between the two parties in information construction and interpretation. In particular, the role of the science and technology volunteer helps to bridge experts and laymen. Lastly, the establishment of trust between producers is a core condition to ensure the continuous operation of the CGI production mechanism. In addition, the participation type of the producer in the CGI production process is a dynamic one. In this process, in addition to the personal motivation of the producer, the level of participation increases as the topic progresses. In some cases, the producer may lead the production mechanism. Therefore, a good participation procedure design should respect the diverse views of producers, establish trust, and converse with each other to ensure the quality of CGI results.
Appropriate GITs selection can increase the initiatives of the producer in environmental information production and will affect the content, efficiency, and quality of the information production. GeoWeb behaves as the infrastructure for CGI production and visualization, and because of the abundance of its background database, it has clear benefits in data spatialization. However, high dependence on GeoWeb poses challenges on CGI production from commercial systems. In addition, attention should be paid to the provision of appropriate spatial attributes for non-structured local knowledge so that it can be used for dialog/comparison with other environmental factors while selecting GITs in CGI production.
The information content of CGI encompasses several types of structured and non-structured data and their connotations vary from each other. The structured spatial data can be inputted into scientific analysis models quickly, thereby deconstructing the positions and variation trends of phenomenon distribution. By contrast, the non-structured data include several observations and descriptions by producers toward the environment or strong participation motivation and opinion requests and require a detailed analysis of their connotation from the social dimension.
During the CGI knowledge generation process, we need to ensure that the information quality and the active participation of producers can help to establish the control mechanism and efficiency of CGI. In addition, producers should have high data openness and convenience for recent usage. Further, the visualization of CGI data plays an important role in knowledge exploration. However, a certain level of professionalism is required for the analysis and selection of parameters of visualization, and the general public cannot be involved in it. Therefore, increasing the transparency of data processing methods and including local viewpoints in parameter selection are the challenges for subsequent CGI production.
Secondly, with regard to the circulation and application of CGI:
As CGI is a type of geospatial information that is produced by public participation, it can satisfy the requirements of both scientific information and public participation in the environmental operation field. CGI can instantiate the environmental knowledge and development intentions of stakeholders. In addition to describing the environmental problems, CGI can be compared with other environmental information to promote research in problem identification and subsequent strategies. Furthermore, during the policy implementation and evaluation stage, the continuously operating CGI production and circulation mechanism can be considered as an assessment on benefits of environmental operation and management, and assist the stakeholders to understand the impact of policies after implementation or carry out another wave of problem identification and policy revision.
As geospatial information is accompanied with social connotation, the circulation and application of CGI can be viewed as a process of negotiating rights and interests, and achieving a consensus. The circulation and application of CGI includes local viewpoints/opinions in the decision-making process and authority, and affects the accountability and result allocation of environmental governance, thereby improving the quality of environmental governance. However, CGI requires continuous participation, negotiation, and cultivation of stakeholders in addition to establishing transparency based on the information production and circulation so that it can be implemented in the decision-making process gradually.
Overall, the CGI production analysis framework proposed in this study can be used in the systematic evaluation of CGI production characteristics in the technical and social dimensions. In addition to this, it can understand the motivation of the producers and connections between GIT application and geographical knowledge production, thereby elucidating the effects of CGI production characteristics on data quality and usability. In view of the aforementioned production analysis, the circulation analysis framework of this study will further help to describe the information content and characteristics of CGI and how to use GIT visualization to include the existing environmental operation and management mechanism, affect the integration of knowledge and opinions of stakeholders, and present the application potential of CGI in the environmental resource management.
第一章 緒 論 1
第一節 空間資訊產製的典範轉移 1
第二節 探索公民共構空間資訊在環境經營管理的影響 4
第二章 文獻回顧 10
第三節 VGI的產製程序與特徵 10
第四節 CGI的產製模式與差異 17
第五節 綜合性分析架構的提出 23
第三章 地理群眾外包及其CGI對於環境經營管理的影響-從兩個災變環境治理案例談起 42
第一節 以群眾外包轉譯社群媒體中的空間資訊 44
第二節 研究案例與方法 48
第三節 結果與討論 68
第四節 地理群眾外包及其CGI在災變環境經營管理的效益 76
第四章 地理公民科學及其CGI對於環境經營管理的影響-以臺灣都市空氣品質的治理為例 81
第一節 以地理公民科學做為一種環境經營管理的資訊媒介 83
第二節 研究案例與方法 92
第三節 結果與討論 99
第四節 地理公民科學及其CGI所促成的公私協力治理 113
第五章 公眾參與地理資訊系統及其CGI對於環境經營管理的影響-以無尾港野生動物保護區的治理品質為例 117
第一節 以治理品質的概念解析PPGIS的應用效益 121
第二節 研究案例與方法 129
第三節 結果與討論 138
第四節 PPGIS對於提升保護區治理品質的效益 147
第六章 結論與建議 153
第一節 CGI的產製與流通機制對於環境資源經營管理的效益 153
第二節 後續研究建議 166
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