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研究生:王淑貞
研究生(外文):Shu-Chen Wang
論文名稱:台灣少年正向發展與鄰里脈絡因子之相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):The Association Between Positive Youth Development and Neighborhood Contextual Factors in Taiwan
指導教授:陳毓文陳毓文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Wen Chen
口試委員:陳端容楊佩榮魏希聖李俊豪
口試委員(外文):Duan-Rung ChenPei-Jung YangHsi-Sheng WeiChun-Hao Li
口試日期:2019-06-10
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:社會工作學研究所
學門:社會服務學門
學類:社會工作學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:少年正向發展鄰里效能多層次迴歸模型地理資訊系統
DOI:10.6342/NTU201902750
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近年來許多研究放置在鄰里效應(neighborhood effect)和社區制度性資源對少年發展產生作用。然而國內青少年正向發展之研究尚在起步,探討促進正向發展之脈絡因子研究不足。本研究探討鄰里脈絡資源、鄰里氛圍及社會規範、活動參與對不同區域少年正向發展之影響,期提供國內研究及方案政策之重要參考。以「Bronfenbrenner (1975)生態理論」及「鄰里效應」為引領之理論架構,探討個體層次的家庭資本、鄰里效能、課外活動參與以及集體層次的區域資源點、可近性、經濟程度對不同區域少年正向發展的影響作用,以回應以下研究問題:(1)少年正向發展與鄰里資源是否關聯? (2)鄰里之集體層次和個體層次變項是否有調節作用,例如家庭和課外活動調節少年正向發展的程度? (3)這些關聯之間是否存在集體層次的脈絡差異。以全國就讀8年級之學生為對象,共回收來自24個行政區,共1,163份有效問卷。本研究分別以整體少年正向發展、五大子面向(能力、自信、品格、連結、關愛)為依變項建置多層次迴歸模型。結果顯示少年的正向發展在行政區之間的平均值沒有顯著差異,集體層次的脈絡因子影響有限,主要的影響在於個體層次內與主要照顧者的關係滿意度、課外活動參與、主觀鄰里凝聚力、鄰里控制力等項。本研究顯示與主要照顧者滿意度、鄰里效能對少年發展有正向作用、而課外活動參與特別有助於都會區少年的正向發展,然硬體設備資源對少年沒有顯著影響。在實務建議方面呼應兒少發展權的重要性,重視少年發展方案活動;同時,也應注重鄰里效能氛圍之促進,與促進家庭資本有同等的重要性。
A lot of studies have focused on the impact of neighborhood effects and community institutional resources on adolescent development. However, related studies in Taiwan are still limited. This study aims to examine the association between youth positive development (PYD) and neighborhood contextual factors. By applying the theortical framework of ecological systems and neighborhood effects, this study proposes following research questions: (1) is there any correlation between PYD and neighborhood resources? (2) Is there any moderating effect between collective level and individual level variables, such as family and extracurricular activities? (3) Are there any differences between these contextual factors in explaining the relationship between various aspects of the PYD? This study applies multilevel regression models to test htpotheses. Individual data were collected from the 8th graders lived in Taipei city, Taipei county, Keelung county, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, and Miaoli by self-administrated questionnaires. Twenty-four schools were sampled, with 2 classes per school, and a total of 1,163 participants. The results show that no differences were found in the average PYD score among students from various districts. Main effects were found in the individual level variables, including the relationship satisfaction with the main caregivers and the perceived neighborhood collective efficacy. Moreover, the participation of extracurricular activities was related to PYD, especially for adolescents from urban area. However, neighborhood facilities had no significant effects on adolescents’ PYD. It echoed the importance of facilitating positive youth development by providing activities, rather than recreational facilities. We should also try to bring up public attention to promot neighborhood cohesion, which is equally important to the positive youth development as family capitals.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究緣起 1
壹、 少年發展權是全球政策議題 1
貳、 鄰里與青少年的正向資產 2
參、 客觀資料的應用—GIS技術彙整變項指標 4
肆、 小結 5
第二節 研究目的 6
第三節 名詞定義 7
壹、少年 7
貳、少年正向發展 7
參、鄰里和社區 8
肆、鄰里集體效能 8
伍、資產(assets) 8
第二章 文獻回顧 11
第一節 少年正向發展的理論 11
壹、 「正向發展」典範發展與脈絡 11
貳、 PYD—5Cs之採用 14
參、 國內PYD相關之研究文獻 16
肆、 小結 17
第二節 鄰里脈絡因子之理論架構 18
壹、 Bronfenbrenner生態觀理論 18
貳、 鄰里脈絡因子與少年行為 19
參、 鄰里脈絡資產之測量 22
肆、 小結 23
第三節 系統性文獻回顧結果及應用 24
壹、 系統性文獻回顧方法及結果 24
貳、 地理資訊系統(GIS)的研究應用 32
參、 小結 33
第三章 研究方法 35
第一節 研究架構與研究假設 35
第二節 問卷資料蒐集 37
壹、研究對象及抽樣設計 37
貳、問卷流程與回收說明 38
參、研究倫理議題 40
第三節 研究工具 42
第四節 資料處理及分析方法 49
壹、問卷資料處理 49
貳、問卷量表的信度與效度分析 49
參、地理空間特徵之客觀資料處理:資源密度與社會經濟地位 50
肆、多層次結構方程式模型 52
伍、模型評鑑指標的應用 54
第四章 研究結果 57
第一節 集體與個體資料之基本特徵 57
壹、集體資料之描述性統計 57
貳、個體資料之人口與家庭特徵 58
參、主觀鄰里資源之描述統計 60
肆、鄰里效能 62
伍、少年的正向發展 64
第二節 少年正向發展之多層次結構方程式模型 67
壹、 零模型 67
貳、 隨機效果共變數模型 68
參、 隨機係數模型 69
肆、 截距結果模型 71
伍、 截距與斜率結果模型 72
陸、 以PYD總平均分數之多層次模型適配度 74
第三節 五大正向發展面向之多層次結構方程式 76
壹、 以能力(Competence)為依變項 76
貳、 以自信(Confidence)為依變項 81
參、 以品格(Character)為依變項 85
肆、 以連結(Connection)為依變項 90
伍、 以關愛(Caring)為依變項 95
陸、 小結 99
第五章 結論與討論 103
第一節 研究結果與討論 103
壹、鄰里特徵及資源分佈狀況 103
貳、多層次迴歸模型結果之比較 103
參、少年正向發展與鄰里脈絡因子研究之假設驗證結果整理 106
第二節 實務與政策意涵 108
壹、促進少年正向發展以支持兒少人權 108
貳、社區參與和少年增權之實務應用 109
參、結合家庭-社區-學校研擬促進少年正向發展的方案 112
肆、促進少年在關愛面向之教育發展 113
第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議 117
壹、研究限制 117
貳、未來研究建議 118
參考文獻 120
附錄一、共19篇鄰里因子影響少年正向發展之文獻回顧列表 133
附錄二、台大行為與社會科學研究倫理審查核可證明 135
附錄三、問卷 136
附錄四、研究參與同意書 140
附錄五、家長不同意書 142
附錄六、全國鄉鎮市區集群分析結果(抽樣分層依據) 144
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