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研究生:潘崇易
研究生(外文):Chung-Yi Pan
論文名稱:冷戰後東南亞地區美中競逐的分析:國際體系層級秩序的形成、建構與轉變
論文名稱(外文):The Analysis of the U.S.-PRC Competition in Southeast Asia after Cold War: The Formation, Construction, and Transition of International Hierarchy
指導教授:張登及張登及引用關係
指導教授(外文):Teng-Chi Chang
口試委員:陳欣之盧業中
口試委員(外文):Hsin-Chih ChenYeh-Chung Lu
口試日期:2019-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:美中競逐權力轉移論霸權霸業治理權威東南亞層級秩序
DOI:10.6342/NTU201903600
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本文問題意識在於了解美中兩國冷戰後在東南亞地區的競逐關係。冷戰後美國挾著豐沛的權力資源在全球開展霸業,中國則以持續的經濟成長加上對周邊國家關係的逐步改善,成長為東亞地區甚至全球範圍內的大國。而東南亞地區在地緣上位處中美接壤,且位居太平洋上重要的戰略要道,豐富的自然資源、眾多的人口及廣大市場,這些因素都是東南亞地區成為美中白熱化競爭區域的原因。傳統上,全球性的霸權與區域崛起強權的關係,總會聯想到權力轉移理論所提及的爭霸戰爭。然實際觀察雙方互動,美中因權力結構差距縮小引發的緊張關係,並未導引雙方發生爭霸戰爭,而是轉為在東南亞地區競逐影響力及利於自身的層級秩序。因此,本文的核心關懷在於冷戰後美中於東南亞地區競逐秩序領導權的故事樣貌,希望可以回答美中為何在東南亞展開競逐、雙方競逐秩序的手段與成效為何,以及對於東南亞區域秩序造成的影響。
本文主要研究發現有三:(1)隨著雙方權力差距縮小,且縮小速度加快,雙方會更傾向積極競爭心態,而具體就呈現在雙方領導人的對東南亞政策演變上越發積極;(2)雙方差距縮小過程中出現霸業鬆脫的重要事件,讓雙方領導人更為清楚意識到權力結構的改變,而形成互動傾向及對東南亞政策轉變的節點;(3)對東南亞層級秩序來說,在1990年代的單極霸權秩序經過2000年代後的美中競逐而產生秩序位移,逐漸變成雙方的秩序競爭,區域層級秩序也漸由原先相對穩固的單極霸業結構,慢慢轉變為美中都是相對鬆散的雙行霸業結構。本文認為美國霸業在危機中受到蝕化,雖然試圖施展治理權威重新鞏固其霸業,但與日漸蓬勃的東協中心性產生衝突,而且也無法回應東協國家的發展需求,而中國便趁隙逐步建立對東南亞國家的影響力與權威關係,並建構功能取代性的層級秩序,這便是冷戰後雙方在東南亞地區展開秩序競逐的完整圖像。
The problematic of this thesis is about the U.S.-PRC Competition in Southeast Asia after Cold War. Southeast Asia is a flourish region with abundant resources and important water routes. The U.S. and the PRC are the two most competitive great powers competing for hegemonic status and leadership in this region. Hegemon-related studies in IR have paid much attention on the relative decline and uprising of powers, which has constituted the perspective that uneven material power growth will cause the hegemonic wars, and lead to the replacement for old hegemon. However, it cannot properly explain the situation nowadays that power transition and the U.S.-PRC competition without the replacement of hegemon. Therefore, this thesis tries to demonstrate the role and effect of authority, arguing that the shifting of hegemonic power is the transition of governance authority, which refers not only to the possessing of relative material power superiority, but also to the consent of subordinate states, and the legitimate ground of hegemonic ruling as well.
There are three main research findings. Firstly, the competition in Southeast Asia between the U.S. and the PRC becomes increasingly intense as the material power gap getting closer. Secondly, from 1990-2016, several crises eroded the hegemony basis of the U.S., transforming the Southeast Asia regional order gradually. Thirdly, the U.S. relies on its strong material resources as well as the institutions left from Cold War era, maintaining its advantageous hierarchical order in this region. On the other hand, the PRC utilizes its outstanding economic resources to develop and deepen the relationships with Southeast Asian countries, transforming its economic power into governance authority and actual influence, and constructing its own hierarchical structure in this area. The ebb and flow of these two structures after Cold War shapes a special two-peak hierarchical order in Southeast Asia.
第一章 緒論 - 1 -
第一節 研究源起與問題意識 - 1 -
第二節 文獻檢閱與研究缺口 - 7 -
第三節 研究範圍 - 24 -
第四節 章節安排與研究方法 - 24 -
第二章 霸權理論建構與研究設計 - 27 -
第一節 霸權、霸業與層級秩序 - 27 -
第二節 研究設計 - 35 -
第三節 小結 - 43 -
第三章 美中在東南亞地區競逐分析 - 47 -
第一節 美中權力結構變動 - 47 -
第二節 美國於東南亞地區國家利益及對東南亞政策演變 - 49 -
第三節 中國於東南亞地區國家利益及對東南亞政策演變 - 61 -
第四節 小結:互動傾向演變及對東南亞政策手段比較 - 66 -
第四章 美中競逐對東南亞層級秩序的影響 - 75 -
第一節 美國霸業鬆脫與中國建構霸業 - 75 -
第二節 TPP與RCEP - 78 -
第三節 南海仲裁與南海行為準則 - 81 -
第四節 小結:東南亞地區層級秩序演變 - 86 -
第五章 結論 - 87 -
第一節 研究發現與分析 - 88 -
第二節 研究限制與展望 - 93 -
參考文獻 - 95 -
一、 中文部分 - 95 -
二、 英文部分 - 100 -
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