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研究生:傅韋銘
研究生(外文):Wei-Ming Fu
論文名稱:以實驗方法探究果蠅的時間感知
論文名稱(外文):Time Perception of Drosophila Melanogaster: An Experiment Design
指導教授:黃貞穎黃貞穎引用關係林書葦
指導教授(外文):Chen-Ying HuangSue-Wei Lin
口試委員:朱建達
口試委員(外文):Jian-Da Zhu
口試日期:2019-07-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:經濟學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:35
中文關鍵詞:時間感知果蠅光遺傳學
DOI:10.6342/NTU201903916
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為了瞭解在做決策時時間感知與時間折現的關係,我們使用果蠅作為實驗對象因其完善的基因工具可以幫助我們理解上述兩概念在神經活動上的關係。由於技術上的困難,本篇的實驗探究僅止於果蠅能否有時間感知能力的部分。我們試了多種的訓練方法,主要可以分為兩大類:古典制約學習以及操作制約學習。在古典制約學習的部分,我們採用經典的果蠅氣味學習實驗作為實驗設計的基礎。我們的實驗發現果蠅能夠依據提前給予的環境刺激(有無燈光)做出對應有獎勵的選擇。在探究時間區辨的能力上,我們用2秒鐘的連續光與10秒鐘的連續光作為時間指示刺激,發現果蠅有統計上顯著的學習效果。雖然訓練組和控制組的學習指數有統計上的顯著差異,但差異量過小促使我們選擇採用其他的方法進行訓練以提高學習效果。我們利用果蠅實驗光遺傳學的技術進行操作制約的訓練,我們訓練果蠅在行進間停下,並停下至少達到我們指定的秒數後而給予獎勵,藉此我們將指定秒數作為操縱變因試看各組間行為是否有差別。實驗結果發現我們的實驗組與控制組的行為並沒有統計上顯著的差異,也因此我們無法做出結論。
To understand the relationship between time perception and time discounting in decision making, we tried to use Drosophila Melanogaster as our animal model due to their well-developed genetic tools. We built up several training protocols for showing the existence of time perception in fruit flies. The protocols can be separated into two major part: Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning. In the classical conditioning protocol, we used the well-known odor association experiment as basis. We started from odor memory associated with two different interval timing stimuli. We showed that flies were able to perform context-dependent task with illumination changed context. We use 2 seconds and 10 seconds continuous light to represent the context of our first pair of interval timing task. The result showed marginally significant positive learning effect. However, as we changed to 1 second and 5 seconds pair, the result was no longer consistent. To enhance the learning performance, we have tried to use optogenetic tools to do operant conditioning to train flies to perform similar task. We trained the flies to use their motion as an operant that predicted the occurrence of reward. Every time an idle event was performed by flies, it would immediately trigger the occurrence of red light reward. The result showed that we were not able to conclude the flies learned to distinguish three different time intervals.
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 4
第三章 方法與結論 5
3.1實驗一:以古典制約訓練 5
3.1.1 亮與暗環境刺激指示物分辨訓練 6
3.1.2 時間刺激指示物分辨訓練 10
3.1.3 實驗一結論與討論 14
3.2 實驗二:以操作制約訓練 16
3.2.1 行為追蹤系統前測 16
3.2.2 以光遺傳學技術訓練前測 18
3.2.3 以光遺傳學技術訓練時間區辨訓練 22
參考文獻 32
附錄 33
Ainslie, G., & Herrnstein, R. J. (1981). Preference reversal and delayed reinforcement. Animal Learning & Behavior, 9(4), 476-482.
Boisvert, M. J., & Sherry, D. F. (2006). Interval timing by an invertebrate, the bumble bee Bombus impatiens. Current biology, 16(16), 1636-1640.
Brocas, I., Carrillo, J. D., & Tarrasó, J. (2018). How long is a minute?. Games and Economic Behavior, 111, 305-322.
Frederick, S., Loewenstein, G., & O''donoghue, T. (2002). Time discounting and time preference: A critical review. Journal of economic literature, 40(2), 351-401.
Gibbon, J. (1977). Scalar expectancy theory and Weber''s law in animal timing. Psychological review, 84(3), 279.
Green, L., Fisher, E. B., Perlow, S., & Sherman, L. (1981). Preference reversal and self control: Choice as a function of reward amount and delay. Behaviour Analysis Letters.
Kim, B. K., & Zauberman, G. (2009). Perception of anticipatory time in temporal discounting. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 2(2), 91.
Meck, W. H. (2005). Neuropsychology of timing and time perception. Brain and cognition, 58(1), 1-8.
Yang, Z., Bertolucci, F., Wolf, R., & Heisenberg, M. (2013). Flies cope with uncontrollable stress by learned helplessness. Current biology, 23(9), 799-803.
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