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研究生:羅文廷
研究生(外文):Wen-Ting Lo
論文名稱:多元感官通道擴增實境設計與博物館學習經驗之研究
論文名稱(外文):How Different Design of Multimodal Media in Augmented Reality Affects Museum Learning Experience
指導教授:林維真林維真引用關係
口試委員:岳修平黃天麒
口試日期:2019-08-10
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:圖書資訊學研究所
學門:傳播學門
學類:圖書資訊檔案學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:152
中文關鍵詞:心流擴增實境博物館學習多媒體感官通道學習者控制
DOI:10.6342/NTU201902770
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應用擴增實境技術於正式與非正式學習環境,近年來隨著技術與裝置的進步而有明顯的增長。博物館也因展示主題多元且強調觀眾透過經驗學習,而逐漸採用擴增實境在展示中,發現擴增實境能讓觀眾更沈浸於展示並提升博物館經驗。不過既有研究多著重於最後的學習結果,較少探究擴增實境對學習過程的影響及其有益博物館學習效果之因素。因此本研究欲進一步探討多元感官通道擴增實境有助博物館學習之因素,並進一步瞭解擴增實境所提供之學習者控制與學習經驗之關聯,並為博物館擴增實境設計提出建議。
為檢視擴增實境提供之學習者控制對學習經驗的影響,本研究召募48位受試者,在〈田中長三郎特展〉中設計兩階段實驗,提供受試者不同形式之展示內容並比較學習過程與結果之差異。第一階段實驗比較觀眾在博物館中,使用與未用擴增實境之學習過程、心流以及學習效果差異;第二階段則將依照擴增實境提供之學習者控制工具數量區分為三組,比較不同組別受試者學習經驗。兩項實驗中皆以觀察法記錄受試者行為,實驗後則以問卷、訪談等方式分析受試者心流、學習表現以及學習行為。
第一階段實驗結果顯示使用擴增實境的受試者比未使用者經歷較深刻的心流經驗,並在「目標明確、自發性經驗」兩心流面向有顯著差異。此外,使用擴增實境之受試者亦花費更多時間觀看展示,也在訪談中顯現對學習經驗及展示主題的興趣。第二階段實驗之三組受試者心流結果雖無明顯差異,然透過訪談可以發現學習者控制工具數量較多者較容易產生心流,也花費較多時間觀看展示。兩項實驗結果顯示心流經驗雖影響受試者行為、態度,卻與受試者學習表現無關。本研究結果主要發現有三。第一,擴增實境因能有效統合不同感官通道之訊息,因此能幫助觀眾建立不同感官通道資訊之間的連接,導致心流以及較佳的學習經驗。第二,有別於過去研究依賴質化自陳方法探討心流,本研究透過質化與量化方法探討心流與學習效果之關聯。多感官通道的博物館擴增實境帶來心流時,觀眾行為、態度亦較佳,但心流並非感官通道與學習效果之中介,因此應將心流以及學習表現分別檢視。第三,擴增實境提供較多學習者控制工具時,觀眾學習表現穩定,且願意在學習過程中使用工具並經歷較佳的學習經驗。學習者控制工具數量並非影響博物館學習經驗之唯一因素,整合各通道所傳遞訊息的方法也與學習經驗有關。當擴增實境透過系統整合不同訊息時,能完整吸引其注意力並加強人們對多媒體環境的認知,因此為適用於博物館學習之工具。
The past decade has witnessed the tremendous growth of augmented reality technologies and applications. When it is used in teaching and learning, AR acts well at displaying either abstract or invisible subject, which helps learner to achieve better understanding and interpretation. Several empirical studies of using AR in museums supported that AR can be effective for people to gain experience and knowledge in museums. These studies indicate that AR not only makes visitor immerse in exhibition but also benefits to their knowledge acquisition. However, previous studies mainly focused on the summative effect on learning outcomes instead of the formative process and factors AR affects learning. Without knowing how AR functioned to facilitate learning, it is difficult to develop the design principle of implementing AR. Therefore, this study intends to find out how multimodal media AR affect museum learning and role that flow plays in learning process.
This study designs an exhibition with two phases experiment to examine visitors’ learning experience between different multimodal media AR design. In study 1, we compare between displaying in AR and static picture multimedia. As for study 2, participants are separated into three groups according to number of learner control tool offered in AR. There are 48 participants taking part in the experiment, their visiting behaviors, learning outcomes and museum experiences were collected and analyzed.
Result of Study 1 shows that participants who learn through AR had experienced deeper state of flow, including spending significantly more time on watching exhibition and higher score in two faces of flow, clear goal and autotelic experience. While participants of the two groups showed no significant difference in their learning performance, participants using AR did mention feelings of flow experience and more subject interest in the interviews. In Study 2, with participants of all three groups who had similar flow experience and learning performance, results of spending time and interview suggested that participants who used more control tools are more likely to experience flow.
Drawn by the findings of the studies, it is concluded that AR is an useful tool for museum learning since it effectively breaks down learning content into shorter paragraph and integrates multimodal message, which affect learning experience and outcome. AR connects information from different modal well for visitor and promotes flow experience. However, while flow experiences affected learner behaviors and attitude toward the learning subject, there is no causal relationship between flow and learning performance. Different from previous studies relying on self-report outcome, quality and quantity results in this study showed that flow can enhance visitors’ museum behavior and attitude. Finally, number of learner control tools used in AR affected flow and museum learning experience. When participants manipulated more control tools, their learning performance and quality of experiences were better, and they were also more willing to use tools offered in AR.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 4
第三節 研究範圍與限制 5
第四節 名詞解釋 5
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 博物館經驗與學習 8
第二節 心流與博物館學習經驗 18
第三節 擴增實境 35
第四節 學習者控制 50
第三章 研究方法 57
第一節 研究方法與實驗設計 57
第二節 研究工具 65
第三節 研究對象 71
第四節 資料分析方法 71
第四章 研究結果與討論 73
第一節 受試者概況 73
第二節 使用與未用擴增實境之觀眾心流及學習經驗 75
第三節 擴增實境提供不同學習者控制工具之觀眾心流及學習經驗 83
第四節 觀察與訪談結果分析 94
第五節 綜合討論 109
第五章 結論與建議 119
第一節 結論 119
第二節 建議 121
參考文獻 124
附錄一:前測參與意願調查表 140
附錄二:博物館學習行為觀察表 144
附錄三:田中長三郎特展觀後問卷 146
附錄四:田中長三郎特展學習評量(實驗一) 147
附錄五:田中長三郎特展學習評量(實驗二) 148
附錄六:〈田中長三郎特展〉觀展經驗訪談大綱 150
附錄七:實驗素材 151
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