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研究生:蔡旻祐
研究生(外文):Min-Yu Tsai
論文名稱:高解析度之臺灣沿岸魩仔漁獲及混獲組成以及其歸因之時空及環境因子
論文名稱(外文):High resolution larval fish compositions of catch and by-catch species in coastal waters of Taiwan, ascribable to spatiotemporal and environmental factors
指導教授:柯佳吟柯佳吟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Ying Ko
口試委員:丘臺生陳志炘李培芬張以杰
口試委員(外文):Tai-Sheng ChiuChih-Shin ChenPei-Fen LeeYi-Jay Chang
口試日期:2018-07-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:漁業科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:混獲率混獲歧異度魩仔漁業黃帶圓腹鯡仔稚魚
DOI:10.6342/NTU201903163
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魩仔漁業係臺灣以鯷科(Engraulidae)和鲱科(Clupeidae)仔稚魚為目標漁獲物種的沿岸漁業之一,其中日本鯷(Engraulis japonicus)、異葉公鯷(Encrasicholina heteroloba)及刺公鯷(Encrasicholina punctifer)三鯷科物種是魩仔漁業主要之組成組成。過去研究發現,部分海域鯷科仔稚魚會隨著環境改變漁況,且漁獲組成隨時空變化有明顯不同。然而,過去對於魩仔研究主要以月別採樣,對於更細時間尺度下此漁業漁獲之不同海域漁獲組成、混獲歧異度變動與其驅動因子瞭解仍然有限。因此,本研究透過2018年全台6個地點(屏東、高雄、台中、新北、宜蘭、花蓮)以週別高頻度的魩仔樣本採集,與相關生物及環境因子收集,探討目標漁獲與混獲組成時空變化及混獲率(Bycatch rate)和混獲歧異度(Bycatch diversity)分別受生物和環境因子影響情形。研究結果發現,全年各地魩仔漁獲物種組成可分成五群,其中四群與三種鯷科主要漁獲物種有關,第五群則以黃帶圓腹鯡(Dussumieria elopsoides)為主要漁獲組成;多數海域混獲率與混獲歧異度不相關;而廣義加性模型(Generalized additive model)中則可發現,全年各地混獲率主要可由海表溫度、地點與三鯷科物種之標準體長三個因子解釋,混獲歧異度主要可由地點與三鯷科物種之準體長兩個因子解釋,且兩者中地點均有最高的解釋力。本研究結果說明漁獲樣本頻度會影響魩仔漁業資源評估,如黃帶圓腹鯡過去可能被低估;且地點或地點因子代表之綜合因素解釋該漁業混獲問題之程度會比環境因子高,而主要漁獲魚種體長較長時因有較強游泳能力會形成群聚(Schooling),可能使空間中物種組成單純化,進而降低混獲情形。綜合而言,高頻度及長時間採收可以更全面了解此漁業資源利用之情形。
“Bua fisheries” is the larvae fisheries targeted at Engraulidae (Anchovies) and Clupeidae (Herrings). It is commonly practiced in the coasts of Japan, Taiwan and mainland China, and the catches were mainly composed of Engraulis japonicas, Encrasicholina heteroloba, and Encrasicholina punctifer. The catch composition of Bua fisheries showed significant seasonal and geographical shifts in parts of waters around Taiwan based on previous studies with monthly samplings. To explore the catch composition variance in a shorter time period, we collected and analyzed weekly Bua catch in Taiwan waters from Ilan, Hualien, Pingtung, Kaohsiung, Taichung and New Taipei City in 2018, and the satellite environmental data at these locations. Generalized additive model investigated the relationships of environmental and biotic factors between bycatch rate and bycatch diversity. In this study, samples were clustered into five groups, including four groups related to anchovies and a group was composed of round herring (Dussumieria elopsoides), which was seldom discussed in the past. Models showed the sea surface temperature, location and length of anchovies significantly affected the bycatch rate. Likewise, location and length of anchovies significantly affected the bycatch diversity. Results from this study indicated high frequency sampling may provide more information about the Bua fisheries, and the resource of round herring might be underestimated in previous studies. Location or the mixed factor that location represented might affect the bycatch rate and diversity more than the environmental data we used in the study. We speculated larger anchovies have enhanced-movement behavior to form small pelagic fish schooling, and which might simplified the composition in unit space and decrease the bycatch rate. We suggest long-term and high frequency samplings should be considered to assess fisheries resource comprehensively.
表附錄 III
圖附錄 IV
摘要 V
Abstract VI
壹、 前言 1
一、 魩仔漁業概況 1
二、 仔稚魚文獻回顧 2
三、 臺灣周遭水域性質 3
四、 魩仔漁獲文獻回顧 4
五、 研究目的 5
貳、 材料與方法 6
一、 魩仔樣本收集 6
二、 樣本保存與處理 6
1. 鑑定 6
2. 測量體長 6
三、 環境資料 7
四、 統計與分析 7
1. 歧異度指標(Shannon diversity index, H’) 7
2. 非度量多維度分析(Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling, NMDS) 8
3. 群聚分析(Cluster analysis) 8
4. 廣義加性模型(Generalized Additive Model, GAM) 9
參、 結果 10
一、 漁獲樣本敘述 10
二、 目標漁獲組成 11
三、 混獲組成 14
四、 漁獲歧異度 19
五、 混獲率及混獲經濟性相關性 20
六、 漁獲分群 20
七、 分群目標物種及混獲組成關係 21
八、 分群物種相關性 21
九、 分群與環境因子關係 24
十、 GAM分析結果 24
十一、 主要鯷科於臺灣周遭水域洄游路徑 25
肆、 討論與結論 26
一、 目標漁獲組成比較 26
二、 地方混獲組成比較 28
三、 分群、環境因子與相關性 31
四、 混獲率及混獲歧異度相關性 33
五、 混獲率、混獲歧異度及臺灣鯷組成與影響因子之關係 33
六、 混獲率及混獲歧異度對於鯷科體長之關係 35
七、 推測之洄游路徑 36
八、 總結 37
伍、 參考文獻 39
陸、 表 47
柒、 圖 58
捌、 附錄 90
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