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研究生:高玓妍
研究生(外文):Ti-Yen Kao
論文名稱:超越調情的語言:日本少女漫畫中壁咚之概念隱喻研究
論文名稱(外文):More Than Flirtation: A Conceptual Metaphor Study of Kabe-don Shown in Japanese Girls’ Comics
指導教授:江文瑜江文瑜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Yu Chiang
口試委員:呂佳蓉蔡宜妮
口試委員(外文):Chia-Rung Lu
口試日期:2019-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:壁咚認知隱喻視覺語法少女漫畫性別角色
DOI:10.6342/NTU201903359
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本研究著重於在日本少女漫畫的壁咚裡,圖像隱喻的分析與其性別社會意義,以及圖像身為一個非語言溝通的媒介,是否有其文法的存在以及隱喻的理解同時以概念隱喻 (Conceptual Metaphor Theory) 建構出壁咚的隱喻意涵的映射 (Mapping)。
概念隱喻是個可以反映人類思考及認知機制的理論,從語言中的隱喻使用也能夠反映人類思維的運作過程。壁咚是個從少女漫畫而蔚為流行的動作,甚至應用至戲劇、動畫,然後成為商業活動的一環。因此為了理解壁咚這個動作在圖像中呈現的認知隱喻,本篇論文探討在壁咚圖像裡如何去呈現視覺語法中的三個意義:象徵意義 (Ideational Meaning)、人際意義 (Interpersonal Meaning) 及文本意義 (Textual Meaning),而分別在這三個意義中,壁咚的圖像元素如何互動、關係為何。其次,透過這些元素去界定隱喻的產生,最後,利用隱喻映射找出壁咚的隱喻與性別角色及關係的連結。
分析的圖像主要從少女漫畫及Google圖像搜尋引擎中取得了200幅壁咚的圖像,其中除了單幅的壁咚圖可以顯示壁咚的最終樣貌之外,畫出連續故事的壁咚圖更能顯示出整個壁咚發生的過程及距離遠近的改變。利用視覺隱喻識別程序 (Visual Metaphor Identification Procedure) 的五個步驟定義隱喻的產生及圖像元素的取捨,並且從視覺語法 (Visual Grammar) 的角度輔助資料分析,包括象徵意義、人際意義及文本意義的探討,在視覺隱喻識別程序每個步驟中,視覺語法的三種意義也能夠隨之釐清,建構出對壁咚較為完整的定義。
研究結果顯示壁咚有五個主要元素構成這個動作:人際關係距離 (Interpersonal Distance) 、手 (The Hand) 、"咚"的聲音 (The Sound of “Don”) 、接近 (Closeness) 及主事者 (The Actor)。根據以上的元素分析,有三個重要的發現:象徵意義、人際意義及文本意義;隱喻探討;壁咚裡的性別探討。這個研究首先針對壁咚的象徵意義、人際意義及文本意義做了更深入的討論,引導出在這三個意義上,壁咚的圖像造成了什麼樣的效果,是如何構成了壁咚的視覺文法。首先,象徵意義上從手的方向來看,壁咚的動作過程 (Action Process) 表現出主事者 (Actor) 及受事者 (Undergoer) 的語意角色。其次,人際意義提供了圖像人物跟讀者傳遞訊息的方式,以及圖像中人物們的距離關係,另外,在這些元素的關係中,眼神交會成為很重要的成分,也造成壁咚裡兩個人的互動有空間隱喻的關係 (HAVING CONTROL IS UP)。最後文本意義呈現在壁咚裡元素的位置擺放,在前景中壁咚人物的大小關係跟其重要性也有隱喻的意涵 (IMPORTANCE IS SIZE)。
其次,以三個意義所分析出的元素作為隱喻連結的基礎,然後對應到壁咚跟動物侵略行為提出了壁咚是入侵 (KABE-DON IS AGGRESSION) 的概念,也就是說,壁咚這個抽象概念透過入侵這個身體經驗來做隱喻的延伸。其中對於壁咚裡的接近行為 (Closeness) 與隱喻 (INTIMACY IS CLOSENESS) 做比較,結果發現壁咚裡的距離上的靠近也可以透過親密行為來理解,只是在壁咚呈現的結果是用掠奪對方的人際距離來達成,是一種有別於平常親密關係的呈現。在最後的部分討論性別在壁咚裡的分布,利用卡方檢定 (Chi-square) 來分析性別與語意角色這兩種類別的關係,我們發現在壁咚中主事者通常是男生,受事者通常是女生,這代表著在壁咚的動作裡,男生顯示著上位角色,女生則相反,女生這樣順從、地位低的角色有可能推測是一個日本社會階層的指標,但是在日本的少女漫畫中卻出現了壁咚,且也被票選為最受女學生歡迎的事物,也就是說壁咚表現出這樣男女性別的社會結構高低,依然還是受歡迎,這樣的反差也值得為日本的性別角色、社會階層做出省思及討論。
The study aims to analyze the visual metaphor and the gender role in Japanese society. As a nonverbal language, kabe-don has its visual grammar and the metaphor which is constructed by the mapping in CMT (Conceptual Metaphor Theory).
Conceptual metaphor is a theory that can reflect the people’s thinking process and cognition mechanism. From the metaphorical uses in verbal languages, it can also reveal how people link abstract experiences to the real world objects and experiences. Kabe-don is a prevailing act which can be traced back to shoujo manga. Even now, it is applied to dramas, anime and some commercial campaigns. In order to understand the conceptual metaphor presented in kabe-don, the study focuses on the discussion of ideational, interpersonal and textual meaning in kabe-don and how the elements of kabe-don interact with each other and the relationship in between. Based on the meanings, a metaphor of kabe-don is established by mapping the elements. Then, the gender issues can be related to the identified metaphor.
The results show that there are five significant elements constructing kabe-don: interpersonal distance, the hand, the sound of “don”, closeness and the Actor. On the basis of the above elements, three main findings will be presented in the study: three meanings (ideational, interpersonal and textual meanings), metaphor of kabe-don and gender issues.
Firstly, the ideational meaning defines the action process of kabe-don by the hand of an Actor which leads the semantic roles in the image. Next, interpersonal meaning provides the means of expressing messages and the relationship of distance between represented participants and interactive participants. Furthermore, the eye contact happening in the image results in the orientational metaphor: HAVING CONTROL IS UP. At last, textual meaning demonstrates the arrangement of elements. In the foreground, the size of participants in kabe-don is relevant to the the degree of significance in the image which refers to the metaphor: IMPORTANCE IS SIZE.
In the second place, this study proposes the metaphor of kabe-don, KABE-DON IS AGGRESSION, which result from the concept of kabe-don can be related to the territoriality of animal behavior. What’s more, the idea of closeness is compared to another metaphor, INTIMACY IS CLOSENESS. The result indicates that the participant plunders one’s distance to get the intimacy with one another in kabe-don. The behavior is a special performance of showing the need of intimacy in people’s understanding.
Eventually, by using chi-square which is a tool to analyze the relation between two categories (gender and semantic roles), the finding shows that the Actor tends to be males while the Undergoer tends to be females. This means that males possess a higher status than females do in Japanese society. But kabe-don is still rated as the most popular thing among the girl students. That is, people may accept the concept of kabe-don even if there are social expectations and the situation of low status to the females in society. The contradiction is worthy of discussing and gives introspection to the gender roles and social hierarchy in Japan.
誌謝------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------i
中文摘要------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii
Abstract------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iv
Table of Contents------------------------------------------------------------------------------v
List of Figures---------------------------------------------------------------------------------viii
List of Tables-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------ix
Chapter 1 Introduction------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 Background Information----------------------------------------------------------------2
1.2 Research Questions --------------------------------------------------------------------4
1.3 Significance of the Study---------------------------------------------------------------5
1.4 Outline of the Study----------------------------------------------------------------------7
Chapter 2 Literature and Theoretical Considerations--------------------------------8
2.1 Conceptual Metaphor -------------------------------------------------------------------8
2.2 Visual Grammar ------------------------------------------------------------------------13
2.3 Manga and Gender Roles------------------------------------------------------------16
Chapter 3 Methodology--------------------------------------------------------------------20
3.1 Data Collection--------------------------------------------------------------------------20
3.2 Methods-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------25
3.3 Analysis and coding--------------------------------------------------------------------26
3.3.1 Visual Metaphor Identification Procedure of Kabe-don---------------------29
3.3.1.1 Identification of the Visual Units------------------------------------------------30
3.3.1.2 Selection of Visual Elements----------------------------------------------------32
3.3.1.3 Relationship Between the Visual Objects------------------------------------34
3.3.1.4 Image Interpretation---------------------------------------------------------------36
3.3.1.5 Image Description-----------------------------------------------------------------36
3.3.2 Visual Grammar of Kabe-don-----------------------------------------------------39
3.3.2.1 Ideational Meaning----------------------------------------------------------------39
3.3.2.2 Interpersonal Meaning------------------------------------------------------------40
3.3.2.3 Textual Meaning--------------------------------------------------------------------43
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion------------------------------------------------------44
4.1 Main Findings (I): Ideational, Interpersonal, Textual Meanings
of Kabe-don-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------44
4.1.1 Ideational Meaning of Kabe-don--------------------------------------------------44
4.1.2 Interpersonal Meaning of Kabe-don---------------------------------------------48
4.1.2.1 The Image Act and the Gaze of Kabe-don----------------------------------48
4.1.2.2 Size of Frame and Social Distance of Kabe-don--------------------------50
4.1.3 Textual Meaning of Kabe-don-----------------------------------------------------52
4.2 Main Findings (II): Metaphor of Kabe-don ---------------------------------------56
4.2.1 KABE-DON IS AGGRESSION----------------------------------------------------56
4.2.1.1 Interpersonal Space -> Territory------------------------------------------------58
4.2.1.2 Hand -> Weapon-------------------------------------------------------------------58
4.2.1.3 The Sound of “Don” -> Invasion------------------------------------------------59
4.2.1.4 Closeness -> Plundering---------------------------------------------------------61
4.2.1.5 Actor -> Intruder--------------------------------------------------------------------62
4.2.2 INTIMACY IS CLOSENESS  PLUNDERING -------------------------------62
4.3 Main Findings (III): Gender and Power Issues of Kabe-don-----------------64
Chapter 5 Conclusions --------------------------------------------------------------------68
5.1 Review-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------68
5.2 Contributions of the Study------------------------------------------------------------70
5.3 Limitations and Further Studies-----------------------------------------------------71
References------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
Appendix - Sources of Figures -----------------------------------------------------------79
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