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研究生:吳秉宸
研究生(外文):Ping-Chen Wu
論文名稱:閾值密碼學的研究與分類
論文名稱(外文):Threshold Cryptography: A Survey and Taxonomy
指導教授:陳君明陳君明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jiun-Ming Chen
口試委員:楊柏因陳君朋謝致仁陳榮傑
口試日期:2019-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:數學研究所
學門:數學及統計學門
學類:數學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:閾值密碼學多方計算ECDSA同態加密雲端計算
DOI:10.6342/NTU201902375
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自區塊鏈問世以來,大眾對隱私的擔憂不斷提升。同時,密碼學的相關發展,如多方計算(MPC)、零知識證明和同態加密等,為閾值密碼學發展奠定了穩固基礎。本研究深入討論兩種主要類型的閾值ECDSA,並以演算法為例進行驗證。此外,根據回合數 、傳輸量以及計算量,對兩種算法進行全面性比較。另一方面,本研究進一步探討閾值加密技術的各種應用,包括TOPRF、TPPSS以及雲端計算中的各種應用。
Ever since the emergence of blockchain, the concerns to privacy have been rising among the public. Meanwhile, the advancements of cryptography, such as MPC (Multi Party Computation), zero-knowledge proof, and homomorphic encryption, etc., pave a consolidated foundation for the threshold cryptography development. In this study, two major types of threshold ECDSA were discussed in depth, and each of them was testified via an algorithm as an example. In addition, the two algorithms were also compared comprehensively based on the number of rounds, the amount of transmission, and the amount of calculation. Furthermore, various applications of threshold cryptography, including TOPRFs, TPPSS, and a variety of applications in cloud computing, were also explored in this study.
致謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
Table of figures viii
Chapter 1. Introduction 9
Chapter 2. Definition and Tools 12
2.1 Decisional Composite Residuosity Assumption (DCRA) 12
2.2 Paillier cryptosystem11 12
2.3 Oblivious Transfer (OT) 13
2.4 Multiplication into addition 14
2.5 Schnorr’s zero-knowledge proof with Fiat–Shamir heuristic 15
Chapter 3. Standardization, Applications and Challenges of Threshold Cryptography 17
3.1 Standardization and recommendations of threshold cryptography 17
3.2 Challenges and issues in standardization of threshold cryptography 18
3.3 Security of threshold cryptography 20
3.3.1 Threshold values 20
3.3.2 Concerning tradeoff among security properties 20
3.3.3 Confidentiality, integrity and availability 20

3.3.4 Defining fx 21
3.4 Applications of threshold cryptography 22
3.4.1 Threshold Oblivious Pseudo-Random Functions (TOPRFs) 22
3.4.2 Threshold Oblivious Password Protected Secret Sharing (TOPPSS) 25
Chapter 4. Applications of threshold signature 27
4.1 Multi signature vs. Threshold signature 27
4.2 Threshold ECDSA 29
4.3 Securing Bitcoin wallets via a new DSA/ECDSA threshold signature scheme. 29
4.3.1 R Gennaro’s algorithm 30
4.3.2 Efficiency analysis 32
4.4 Threshold ECDSA from ECDSA Assumptions14, 15 34
4.4.1 Doerner’s algorithm 35
4.4.2 Efficiency analysis 37
4.5 Comparisons between the two studies 39
4.6 Other forms of threshold secret sharing 40
4.6.1 Weighted threshold47-51 40
Chapter 5. Threshold Cryptography on Cloud Computing 42
5.1 Introduction of cloud computing 42
5.2 The NIST definition of cloud computing 42
5.3 Threshold Cryptography on Cloud Computing 43

5.3.1 Threshold cryptography based on data security in cloud computing55 44
5.3.2 A secured key for cloud computing using threshold cryptography in Kerberos56 46
5.3.3 Searching for the optimal value for threshold on cloud computing57 48
Chapter 6. Conclusions 50
References 52
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