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研究生(外文):Yu-sheng Chen
論文名稱(外文):Development of shape-from-focus profile measuring system and algorithms using hybrid pattern projection
指導教授(外文):Liang-Chia Chen
口試委員(外文):Jin-Ting HsiaoZheng-Liang LiuShig-Tsung LinSheng-Li Yeh
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經由實驗結果證實,本研究建立之系統在二十倍放大倍率下具0.0047μm (1σ) 的重複度,0.497μm/pixel的空間解析度,以及介於1.28μm 與 0.64μm間的軸向解析度。除硬體表現以外,本研究所提出之方法與傳統方法所得成果之差異比較也一併呈現於章節中,且改良後之精密度增進可明確地被觀測。
In this research, a solid microscopic system is developed in the aim of achieving automated optical inspection. Such system has the capability of actively projecting the programmed pattern as well as executing vertical objective movement, along with the features of superior repeatability and adaptability. Numerous issues had emerged during the process of system establishment, and thus the encountered problems and corresponding solutions are also suggested in the article. For instance, to resolve the laterally spectral-dispersive issue caused by the digital micromirror device, a Kohler illumination module is harnessed to attain greater homogeneity and spatial integration property of the reflected beam.
The primary objective of this article is to reconstruct samples which contain both specular and diffusive surfaces within a single field of view by the shape from focus method. To achieve such target, a hybrid projection method is developed by the combination of the profiles constructed by active and passive illuminated surfaces. The texture of the profile will first be assessed by a numerical method through a two-dimensional all-in-focused image of the scene, then the correct topography will be allocated to designated pixels. The method can effectively reduce the shooting noise existence within the field, thus enhancing the precision in reconstruction.
Additional numerical methods are also developed in order to facilitate the measuring process. The approaches include the optimization of fringe period, a new focus measure operator, and a solution to reflectivity problem. By the application of such processes, the precision, reliability, and efficiency of the reconstruction can be further improved.
From experimental results, the repeatability of the system is evaluated as 0.0047μm (1σ) from three experiments, the spatial resolution is 0.497μm/pixel, and the axial resolution lies between 1.28μm and 0.64μm, under a magnification of 20 times. Aside from mechanical performances, the comparisons between ordinary and proposed approaches are also presented, where the proposed optimal pattern and the focus measure operator have evidently better precision than the compared ones.
Abstract 1
摘要 3
Acknowledgement 4
List of figures 8
List of tables 13
Chapter 1 Introduction 14
1.1 Background 14
1.1.1 Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) 14
1.1.2 Shape from Focus (SFF) – Overview 17
1.2 Motivation 18
1.3 Objective 18
1.4 Structure of thesis 19
Chapter 2 Literature Review 21
2.1 Confocal microscopy 21
2.1.1 Overview 21
2.2.2 Point scanning approaches 23
2.2.3 Line scanning approaches 25
2.2.4 Area scanning approaches 27
2.2.5 Utilization of transmissive spatial light modulators 31
2.2.6 Conclusion of confocal microscopy 34
2.2 Focus Measure Approaches 37
2.2.1 Gradient based operators 38
2.2.2 Laplacian based operators 39
2.2.3 Wavelet based operators 40
2.2.4 Statistics based operators 41
2.2.5 Conclusion of focus measure operators 42
2.3 Active Pattern Projection 43
2.4 Conclusion of literature review 47
Chapter 3 System establishment 49
3.1 Introduction to the measurement system 49
3.2 Programmable aperture array 50
3.3 Structure of the measurement system 53
Specifications of system 57
3.4 Encountered issues 58
3.4.1 Uneven defocusing 58
3.4.2 Lateral movement during depth scanning 63
3.5 Measurement procedures of half-specular samples 72
3.6 Conclusion of chapter 3. 75
Chapter 4 Arithmetic approaches 76
4.1 Optimized illumination pattern 76
4.2 A new focus measure operator 86
4.3 Identification of spectral and diffusive surface areas 95
4.4 Solutions to the reflectivity problem 101
4.5 Conclusion of chapter 4 105
Chapter 5 Experiment results and discussions 106
5.1 Analysis of measurement results 106
5.1.1 Performance evaluation of illumination combination 106
5.1.2 Performance evaluation of the optimized structured pattern 112
5.1.3 Performance evaluation of the new focus measure operator 115
5.1.4 Repeatability and resolution evaluation 123
5.2 Reconstruction of real-world specimens 130
5.3 Discussions 133
Chapter 6 Conclusion and Future works 136
6.1 Conclusion 136
6.2 Future works 137
Reference 142
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