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研究生:陳宏奕
研究生(外文):Hong-Yi Chen
論文名稱:以自然光和LED做為光源的線性菲聶爾透鏡與自由曲面透鏡設計應用於隧道照明
論文名稱(外文):Linear Fresnel Lens and Free-Form Lens Design Using Natural Light and LED as Combing Light Source for Tunnel Lighting
指導教授:黃忠偉黃忠偉引用關係陳怡永
指導教授(外文):Jong-Woei WhangYi-Yung Chen
口試委員:徐巍峰陳省三林保宏陳怡永林瑞珠
口試委員(外文):Wei-Feng HsuSing-San ChenPao-Hung LinYi-Yung ChenJui-Chu Lin
口試日期:2019-07-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:光電工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:線性菲聶爾透鏡設計自由曲面透鏡設計隧道照明雪山隧道
外文關鍵詞:Linear Fresnel lens designFree-form lens designTunnel lightingHsueh Shan Tunnel
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傳統的隧道照明有著照明環境不佳、能源耗費龐大的問題,本研究以自然光和LED做為光源,設計出兩種不同的透鏡,當陽光充足時,利用自然光照明系統在閾值區和出口區給予隧道照明,減少LED的使用量,當陽光不夠時,LED能為隧道進行補光照明。在兩種設計方面,以微結構建立線性菲聶爾透鏡做為自然光照明系統的放光元件,以折反射法建立LED的自由曲面非對稱透鏡,將兩種透鏡經由光學模擬軟體FRED驗證,其模擬結果在道路面上能達到矩形的分佈,均勻度分別為84.8、80.2,效率分別為78.3%、84.8%。透過DIALux建立出雪山隧道的模型,以三種模式模擬兩種透鏡照射在隧道內的情況,模式一為陽光充足時只用線性菲聶爾透鏡做放光,模式二為陽光不足時只用LED照明,模式三為兩種透鏡同時使用做混合照明,根據自然光的強弱調整LED的照明比例做節能,其三種模式都能符合閾值區前段大於120cd/m2、後段大於60cd/m2,出口區前段大於30cd/m2、後段大於15cd/m2、總均勻度U0大於等於0.4、縱向均勻度U1大於等於0.6的需求。本研究解決了三個問題,第一,以LED做為光源利用光學設計改善傳統高壓納燈本身功率太高容易造成眩光的問題,第二,利用平均照度法去計算最適當的燈具間距,減少路面斑馬紋的產生,第三,結合了自然光與人工光源,在戶外輝度最高時,以自然光去代替傳統隧道照明燈需全開的情況,當自然光能量降低時再以LED去補足隧道的照明,維持隧道的照明環境,隧道燈也就不需要再24小時運作而能節省能源。
Traditional tunnel lighting has the problem of poor lighting environment and huge energy consumption. In this study, two different lenses were designed with natural light and LED as the light source. When the sunlight is enough, the natural light illumination system is used to give tunnel illumination in the threshold zone and the exit zone to reduce the LED usage. When the sunlight is not enough, the LED can complement the tunnel lighting. In terms of the two designs, the linear Fresnel lens is established as a light-emitting element of a natural light illumination system with a microstructure, and the free-form surface asymmetric lens of the LED is established by the catadioptric method. The two lenses are verified by the optical simulation software FRED. The uniformity on the road surface can reach about 84.8 and 80.2, and the efficiency are about 78.3% and 84.8% respectively. The model of the Hsueh-Shan tunnel was established by DIALux, and the two kinds of lenses were simulated in the tunnel in three modes. The mode 1 is only used with linear Fresnel lens when sunlight is enough. The mode 2 is only LED lighting when there is no sunlight. The mode 3 is hybrid lighting with the two kinds sources at the same time, which can adjust the lighting ratio of LED according to the intensity of natural light to save energy. As a result, the three modes can meet the first section is greater than 120cd/m2, the second section is greater than 60cd/m2 in the threshold zone and the first section is greater than 30cd/m2, the second section is greater than 15cd/m2 in the exit zone, the total uniformity U0 is greater than or equal to 0.4, longitudinal uniformity U1 is greater than or equal to 0.6. Finally, this study solves three problems. First, uses LED as the light source, and uses optical design to improve the problem that the traditional high-pressure sodium lamp itself is too high to causes glare. Second, the average illuminance method is used to calculate the most appropriate lamp spacing and reduce the zebra pattern on the road surface. Third, combines the natural light and the artificial light source, when the outdoor luminance is the highest, the natural light replaces the traditional tunnel light to be fully open. When the natural light energy is reduced, the LED is used to supplement the tunnel lighting to maintain the tunnel lighting environment. The tunnel lights do not need to operate 24 hours a day to save energy.
中文摘要..................................I
Abstract................................II
誌謝....................................III
目錄.....................................IV
圖目錄...................................VI
表目錄.................................VIII
第 1 章 緒論..............................1
1-1 研究背景..............................1
1-2 研究動機..............................2
1-3 論文架構..............................5
第 2 章 光學理論..........................6
2-1 費馬定理(Fermat’s Theorem)............6
2-2 司乃爾定律(Snell’s Law)...............7
2-3 反射定律(Law of Reflection)...........7
2-4 全反射定律(Total Internal Reflection).8
2-5 光通量(Luminous Flux,Φ)..............9
2-6 立體角(Solid Angle,Ω)...............10
2-7 光強度(Luminous Intensity,I)........11
2-8 照度(Illuminance,E).................12
2-9 輝度(Luminance,L)...................13
2-10 均勻度(Uniformity,U)...............14
2-11 色溫(Color Temperature,K)..........15
2-12 演色性(Color Rendering Index,,CRI).16
第 3 章 隧道區域介紹與需求................17
3-1 黑洞效應(Black Hole Effect)..........17
3-2 頻閃效應(Flicker)....................17
3-3 眩光限制(Glare Restriction)..........18
3-4 逆照式照明(Counter-Beam Lighting)....19
3-5 停車視距(Stopping Distance)..........20
3-5 隧道法規/標準........................21
3-6 隧道區域.............................23
3-7 燈具間距設計.........................27
3-8 道路路面材質.........................27
3-9 維護係數.............................28
第 4 章 線性菲聶爾透鏡和自由曲面透鏡設計....29
4-1 線性菲聶爾透鏡........................29
4-2 自由曲面對稱透鏡......................37
4-3 自由曲面非對稱透鏡....................45
第 5 章 DIALux模擬-以雪山隧道為場域........53
5-1 雪山隧道場域..........................53
5-2 閾值區...............................54
5-3 出口區...............................61
5-4 DIALux模擬總結.......................68
第 6 章 結論與未來展望....................69
6-1 結論.................................69
6-2 未來展望.............................69
參考資料.................................70
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