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研究生:吳宗哲
研究生(外文):Tsung-Che Wu
論文名稱:積體化氮化鎵發光二極體與光電晶體之先期實驗結果
論文名稱(外文):Preliminary experimental results of integrated GaN-based LED and phototransistor
指導教授:葉秉慧
指導教授(外文):Ping-Hui Yeh
口試委員:徐世祥蘇忠傑葉秉慧
口試委員(外文):Shih-Hsiang HsuJung-Chieh SuPing-Hui Yeh
口試日期:2018-01-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:135
中文關鍵詞:積體化氮化鎵發光二極體光電晶體
外文關鍵詞:IntegratedGaN-basedLEDPhototransistor
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  本論文使用商用氮化鎵LED晶圓,利用矽擴散(Silicon Diffusion)製程,選擇性的將部分最上層的p-AlGaN反轉成n-AlGaN,使其結構由p-i-n變成n-p-i-n結構,在同一片晶圓完成發光二極體、p-i-n結構光偵測器以及n-p-i-n結構光電晶體三種元件,並量測發光二極體的光電特性,以及兩種光偵測器的特性包括暗電流、外部量子效率、在不同偏壓下的響應率以及響應時間。
  首先評估發光二極體在此積體化製程下的特性量測結果。在電性量測中,發光二極體的啟動電壓約為3.1 V,串聯電阻約為182 Ω。光學特性中,發光二極體在電流為10 mA下的光輸出功率為3.2 mW。證明此積體化製程是成功相容的,並不影響發光二極體的光電特性。再來比較兩種同時製作的光偵測器。p-i-n結構光偵測器的外部量子效率峰值波長約為384 nm,其外部量子效率值在不同逆向偏壓0 V、1.5 V、3 V、5 V、7 V下分別為44.3 %、51.6 %、56.1 %、56.9 %、59.5 %。n-p-i-n光電晶體元件的外部量子效率峰值波長約為384 nm,其外部量子效率值在不同逆向偏壓0 V、1.5 V、3 V、5 V、7 V下分別為32.3 %、37.3 %、39.8 %、47.9 %、74.7 %。n-p-i-n光電晶體元件逆向偏壓在5 V之前與p-i-n光偵測器有著相似的特性,並擁有p-i-n光偵測器響應速度快的優點。而元件在逆向偏壓7 V時開始有明顯的電流增益,使得n-p-i-n光電晶體的響應率與外部量子效率都高於p-i-n光偵測器,因此更適合做為UV光偵測器。
This paper used commercial GaN LED wafers by using silicon diffusion process. Three components of light-emitting diode, p-i-n structured photodetector and n-p-i-n structured phototransistor on the same wafer. The characteristics of light-emitting diodes are measured. The characteristics of two photodetectors included dark current, external quantum efficiency, responsivity under different bias voltages, and response time.
First, the measurement results of the light-emitting diode. In the electrical measurement, the turn on voltage of the light-emitting diode is about 3.1 V, and the series resistance is about 182 Ω. In the optical characteristics, the light output power of the light-emitting diode at a current of 10 mA is 3.2 mW. It’s proving that this integrated process is successfully compatible.
The external quantum efficiency of p-i-n structure photodetector has a peak wavelength about 384 nm, when the bias voltage VCE is 0 V, 1.5 V, 3 V, 5 V, 7 V, the EQE of the peak is 44.3 %, 51.6 %, 56.1 %, 56.9 %, 59.5 % respectively. The external quantum efficiency of n-p-i-n structure phototransistor has a peak wavelength about 384 nm, when the bias voltage VCE is 0 V, 1.5 V, 3 V, 5 V, 7 V, the EQE of the peak is 32.3 %, 37.3 %, 39.8 %, 47.9 %, 74.7 % respectively.
The reverse bias of n-p-i-n phototransistor device has similar characteristics to p-i-n photodetector before 5 V, and has the advantage of fast response speed of p-i-n photodetector. The responsivity and external quantum efficiency of n-p-i-n phototransistor are higher than p-i-n photodetector, so it is more suitable as a UV photodetector.
摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XIV
第一章 導論 1
1.1 緒論 1
1.2 文獻回顧與研究動機 3
1.3 市售UV偵測器介紹 12
第二章 光偵測器理論 16
2.1 光偵測器工作原理 16
2.2 光偵測器架構分類 19
2.2.1 p-n接面光二極體(p-n Photodiode) 20
2.2.2 p-i-n接面光電二極體(p-i-n photodiode) 23
2.2.3 蕭基位障光電二極體(Schottky Barrier Photodiode) 27
2.2.4 雪崩型光二極體(Avalanche Photodiode) 29
2.2.5異質接面光二極體(Heterojunction Photodiode) 33
2.2.6 光電晶體(Phototransistor) 35
2.2.7 光導體光偵測器(Photoconductive Detector) 37
2.3 光偵測器檢測參數 40
2.3.1 量子效率(Quantum Efficiency, QE) 40
2.3.2 響應率(Responsivity, R) 43
2.3.3 響應速度(Response Speed) 44
2.3.4 拒斥比(Rejection Ratio) 45
第三章 元件設計與製程 46
3.1 元件設計 46
3.2 元件製程 48
3.2.1 活化製程(Activation) 50
3.2.2 絕緣製程(Isolation) 51
3.2.3 高台圖型製程(MESA) 53
3.2.4矽擴散製程(Silicon diffusion) 55
3.2.5 二氧化矽絕緣層沉積 56
3.2.6 ITO透明導電層沉積 57
3.2.7 N&P型電極沉積 58
第四章 儀器介紹 59
4.1 製程儀器介紹 59
4.1.1 快速升溫退火爐(Rapid Thermal Annealing, RTA) 59
4.1.2 電漿輔助化學氣相沉積系統(Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition, PECVD) 60
4.1.3 旋轉塗佈機(Spin Coater) 61
4.1.4 光罩對準機(Mask Aligner) 62
4.1.5 感應耦合電漿式離子蝕刻機(ICP-RIE) 64
4.1.6 電子束蒸鍍機(E-beam Evaporator) 66
4.1.7 射頻濺鍍機(RF Sputter) 67
4.2量測儀器介紹 69
4.2.1 表面輪廓儀(Alpha Step) 69
4.2.2 I-V與L-I量測系統 70
4.2.3 太陽模擬光源(Solar Simulator)I-V量測 71
4.2.4 光激發螢光(Photoluminescence, PL)量測系統 73
4.2.5 外部量子效率量測系統(Incident Photon to Electron Conversion Efficiency, IPCE) 74
4.2.6 響應時間(Response Time)量測系統 76
第五章 實驗結果 77
5.1 氮化鎵LED基本光電特性 79
5.2 氮化鎵p-i-n光偵測器量測結果與討論 83
5.2.1 氮化鎵p-i-n光偵測器暗電流量測 83
5.2.2 氮化鎵p-i-n光偵測器外部量子效率量測 85
5.2.3 氮化鎵p-i-n光偵測器響應速度量測 88
5.3 氮化鎵n-p-i-n光電晶體量測結果與討論 94
5.3.1 氮化鎵n-p-i-n光電晶體暗電流量測 94
5.3.2氮化鎵n-p-i-n光電晶體外部量子效率量測 97
5.3.3氮化鎵n-p-i-n光電晶體響應速度量測 100
第六章 結論與未來展望 110
6.1 結論 110
6.2 未來展望 114
參考文獻 115
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