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研究生:王子勛
研究生(外文):TZU-HSUN WANG
論文名稱:積體化紫外光感測器與LED警示燈
論文名稱(外文):Integrated UV sensor and LED warning light
指導教授:葉秉慧
指導教授(外文):Ping-hui Yeh
口試委員:徐世祥李奎毅李志堅
口試委員(外文):Shih-Hsiang HsuKuei-Yi LeeChih-Chien Lee
口試日期:2019-07-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:光電晶體積體化感測器
外文關鍵詞:PhototransistorIntegratedsensor
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本論文研製積體化紫外光感測器與LED警示燈。所使用的晶圓為商用氮化鎵晶圓,經由光罩設計與利用矽擴散(Silicon Diffusion)製程,達到選擇性地將部分最上層的p-GaN反轉成n-GaN,使其結構由p-i-n變成n-p-i-n結構,在同一片晶圓完成發光二極體、p-i-n結構光偵測器以及n-p-i-n結構光電晶體三種元件。並量測發光二極體的光電特性,以及兩種不同電子阻擋層結構晶圓的n-p-i-n光偵測器特性包括暗電流、外部量子效率與在不同偏壓下的響應率。並以運算放大器(operational amplifier)將光偵測器光電流訊號轉為電壓訊號,再透過二級放大達到LED 驅動電壓,藉此可以將看不見的紫外光透過可見的LED來展現與警示。
在光電特性量測上,發光二極體的啟動電壓約為3.0 V,串聯電阻約為182 Ω。在電流為10 mA下的光輸出功率為4.8 mW,證明此積體化製程是成功相容的,並不影響發光二極體的光電特性。
再來比較兩種晶圓QRBAH與FEBI製作的光偵測器,其外部量子效率峰值波長分別為384 nm和380 nm,QRBAH外部量子效率值在不同逆向偏壓0 V、1.5 V 、3 V、5 V、7 V、9 V、11 V下分別為37.2 %、46.1 %、54.3 %、56.2 %、64.8 %、88.0 %、109 %。而FEBI外部量子效率值在不同逆向偏壓0 V、1.5 V、3 V、5 V、7 V下分別為30.3 %、32.2 %、33.1 %、39.5 %、76.1 %。兩種n-p-i-n光電晶體元件有著相似的光電特性,而在逆向偏壓7 V時都開始有明顯的電流增益,且峰值外部量子效率與響應率都很相近,但響應速度不同。
接著使用n-p-i-n光電晶體元件將偵測UV光的電流訊號轉為電壓訊號。並放大轉換完之電壓訊號成功驅動LED。因此n-p-i-n光電晶體更適合做為紫外光偵測器,響應率比p-i-n光偵測器高,與LED積體化不僅省去特殊磊晶的成本,還可增加功能,例如本實驗使用LED為警示燈。
This paper develops integrated UV sensor and LED warning light. The wafers used are commercial GaN wafers, designed through a mask and utilizing the Silicon Diffusion process. Selectively inverting part of the uppermost layer of p-GaN into n-GaN, and changing its structure from p-i-n to n-p-i-n structure. Three components of light-emitting diode, p-i-n structured photodetector and n-p-i-n structured phototransistor on the same wafer. The characteristics of light-emitting diodes are measured. The characteristics of two different electron blocking layer wafers of n-p-i-n photodetectors included dark current, external quantum efficiency, responsivity under different bias voltages, and responsivity. And then, The operational amplifier is used to convert the photodetector photocurrent signal into a voltage signal and then passes the secondary amplification to reach the LED Turn-on voltage. In this way, invisible UV light can be seen and alerted through visible LED.
First, In the photoelectric characteristics, the turn on voltage of the light-emitting diode is about 3.0 V, and the series resistance is about 159 Ω. The light output power of the light-emitting diode at a current of 10 mA is 4.8 mW. It’s proving that this integrated process is successfully compatible.
Then compare the photodetectors made by QRBAH and FEBI. The external quantum efficiency peak wavelengths are 384 nm and 380 nm, respectively. The external quantum efficiency of QRBAH are 37.2 %, 46.1 %, 54.3 %, 56.2 %, 64.8 %, 88.0 %, 109 % under different reverse bias voltages of 0 V, 1.5 V, 3 V, 5 V, 7 V, 9 V, and 11 V, respectively. The FEBI external quantum efficiency are 30.3 %, 32.2 %, 33.1 %, 39.5 %, and 76.1 % at different reverse bias voltages of 0 V, 1.5 V, 3 V, 5 V, and 7 V, respectively. The two n-p-i-n components have similar photoelectric characteristics, and the current gain starts at 7 V at the reverse bias voltage, and the peak external quantum efficiency and responsivity are similar, but the response speed is different.
The current signal for detecting UV light is converted into a voltage signal using an n-p-i-n component. And the amplified voltage signal is amplified to successfully turn-on the LED. Therefore, the n-p-i-n component is more suitable as an ultraviolet light detector, and the responsivity higher than that of the p-i-n photodetector. Integration with LEDs not only eliminates the cost of special epitaxy, but also adds functionality. For example, LEDs are used as warning lights in this experiment.
目錄

摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xvi
第一章 導論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2文獻回顧與研究動機 3
1.3 市售紫外光偵測器介紹 13
第二章 光偵測器理論介紹 19
2.1 光偵測器工作原理 19
2.2 光偵測器架構分類 21
2.2.1 p-n接面光二極體(p-n Photodiode) 21
2.2.2 p-i-n接面光電二極體 24
2.2.3 蕭基位障光電二極體(Schottky Barrier Photodiode) 28
2.2.4 雪崩型光二極體(Avalanche Photodiode) 30
2.2.5 異質接面雪崩光二極體 33
2.2.6 光電晶體 35
2.2.7 光導體光偵測器(Photoconductive Detector) 37
2.3 光偵測器檢測參數 39
2.3.1 量子效率(Quantum Efficiency, QE) 39
2.3.2 響應率(Responsivity, R) 42
2.3.3 響應速度(Response Speed) 43
2.3.4 拒斥比(Rejection Ratio) 43
2.3.5 雜訊等效功率(Noise Equivalent Power, NEP) 44
第三章 元件設計與儀器介紹 45
3.1 光偵測器元件設計 45
3.2 元件製程 47
3.2.1 活化製程(Activation) 49
3.2.2 絕緣製程(Isolation) 49
3.2.3 高台圖型製程(Mesa) 51
3.2.4 矽擴散製程(Silicon diffusion) 53
3.2.5 二氧化矽絕緣層沉積 55
3.2.6 ITO透明導電層沉積 55
3.2.7 N型電極沉積 56
3.3 製程儀器介紹 57
3.3.1 旋轉塗佈機(Spin coater) 57
3.3.2 光罩對準機(Mask aligner) 58
3.3.3 電漿增強式化學氣相沉積 59
3.3.4 感應耦合電漿反應式離子蝕刻機 61
3.3.5 射頻濺鍍機 62
3.3.6電子束蒸鍍機 64
3.3.7 快速升溫退火爐 65
第四章 量測儀器介紹 67
4.1 量測儀器介紹 67
4.1.1 I-V與L-I量測系統 67
4.1.2 薄膜厚度輪廓測度儀(Alpha step) 68
4.1.3 太陽光模擬光源(Solar simulator)I-V量測 69
4.1.4 光激發螢光(Photoluminescence, PL)量測系統 70
4.1.5光電轉換效率量測系統 71
第五章 結果與討論 73
5.1 積體化製程氮化鎵LED基本光電特性 75
5.2 積體化製程氮化鎵光電晶體基本光電特性 77
5.2.1 IC-VEC量測與討論 78
5.2.2 IB-VBE量測與討論 81
5.3積體化氮化鎵元件模組電路架構 82
5.4積體化氮化鎵元件模組電路量測結果與討論 83
5.4.1氮化鎵n-p-i-n光電晶體偵測器驅動LED實驗 83
5.4.1.1 氮化鎵n-p-i-n光電晶體之暗電流、外部量子效率及響應率量測 83
5.4.1.2驅動LED實驗結果與討論 94
第六章 結論與未來展望 97
6.1結論 97
6.2未來展望 101
參考文獻 102
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