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研究生:李佳政
研究生(外文):Jia-Zheng Li
論文名稱:以NX開發被夾持零件之自動刀具路徑規劃系統
論文名稱(外文):Development of Automatic Tool-Path Planning System for Clamped Parts Using NX
指導教授:李維楨李維楨引用關係鍾俊輝
指導教授(外文):Wei-Chen LeeChun-Hui Chung
口試委員:林清安鍾俊輝
口試委員(外文):Ching-An LinChun-Hui Chung
口試日期:2019-01-10
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:NX二次開發最佳化刀具路徑規劃戴克斯特拉演算法
外文關鍵詞:NXOpen APIOptimized tool path planningDijkstra’s algorithm
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目前電腦輔助製造軟體廣泛運用於機械加工業中,但卻因為操作步驟過於繁雜,並且受限於刀路規劃人員的經驗,而降低了刀路規劃人員的工作效率,因此有效的縮短刀路規劃時間以及提升產品加工效率為本研究之重心所在。為了縮短刀路規劃時間,本研究以德國西門子公司開發之NX為開發環境,並藉由NX所提供的應用程式介面(Application Programmimg Interface,簡稱API)進行一自動化具路徑規劃系統開發,其內部包含零件的加工部位辨識、刀具選擇法則以及工序規劃演算法。藉由本研究所開發的加工部位辨識先將幾何進行分類,再依據不同的工序以及加工部位自動篩選出適合的加工刀具以及加工參數,並自動規劃適合的工法。除此之外,以戴克斯特拉演算法(Dijkstra's algorithm)與貪婪演算法(Greedy algorithm)為基礎開發出一套工法編排的演算法,著重在縮短粗中加工的加工時間,以粗加工、二次粗加工與中加工三種工序所輸出的加工時間進行排列組合,最後輸出可以提升加工效率的工序組合。藉由本研究所開發之刀具路徑規劃系統,不僅縮短了刀具路徑規劃人員的工作時間,並且所規劃的刀具路徑除了具有合理性,也提升了產品的生產效率。
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software is commonly used in the manufacturing industry to help the programming of computer numerical control (CNC) machines. With the advancement of technology, CAM software contains many kinds of methods to improve the machining efficiency and quality, and the software companies are constantly developing and optimizing new tool path strategies. Although there are abundant options to finish the programming, it still depends on the engineers’ experience to decide the combination of cutting parameters and strategies. Therefore, this study developed an automatic tool path planning system based on the CAM software, NX, which is developed by Siemens AG. The developed system included variety of commonly used cutting strategies, tool database, and geometry recognition functions. In this system, the cutting area recognition function first classifies the geometry, and then automatically selects suitable cutting tool and cutting parameters according to different materials, processes, and cutting areas. The cutting strategies and operations are then automatically planned. In order to shorten the cutting duration of roughing and semi-finishing operations, a set of tool path planning results will be compared using Dijkstra's algorithm and Greedy algorithm. The combination of roughing and semi-finishing operations with the shortest operation time will be selected by the developed system to confirm the production efficiency.
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖索引 VII
表索引 X
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 論文架構 2
第2章 文獻探討 3
2.1 電腦輔助製造系統開發實例探討 3
2.2 特徵辨識於切削加工之探討 5
2.3 銑削刀具路徑探討 5
2.4 刀具選擇 9
第3章 研究方法 10
3.1 系統開發架構 12
3.1.1 系統開發使用工具 15
3.2 零件幾何擷取方法 16
3.2.1 零件幾何擷取流程架構 16
3.2.2 零件幾何辨識法則 17
3.2.3 特徵尺寸量測法則 24
3.3 刀具選用方法 25
3.3.1 刀具選用流程架構 25
3.3.2 粗加工刀具選擇法則 27
3.3.3 中加工刀具選擇法則 29
3.3.4 精加工刀具選擇法則 30
3.3.5 曲面加工刀具選擇法則 31
3.4 切削工法設定 33
3.4.1 自動刀具路徑規劃 33
3.4.2 刀具路徑架構 34
3.4.3 粗加工工法 35
3.4.4 中加工工法 40
3.4.5 2D及2.5D精加工工法 42
3.4.6 曲面精加工工法 44
3.4.7 清角加工工法 46
第4章 最短加工時間之刀具路徑規劃 47
4.1 實驗架構 47
4.2 第一階段測試 50
4.3 第二階段測試 54
4.4 第三階段測試 61
第5章 實例驗證 64
5.1 系統介面介紹 64
5.2 主介面操作 66
5.3 刀具路徑規劃介面操作 69
5.3.1 加工部位擷取操作流程 69
5.3.2 零件幾何辨識結果與驗證 72
5.3.3 自動刀具路徑生成操作步驟 74
5.3.4 加工工法驗證 79
5.4 參數修改介面操作 81
5.4.1 介面操作流程 81
5.5 實際切削驗證結果 83
5.5.1 實驗設備及工具 83
5.5.2 實際切削驗證結果與討論 88
第6章 結論與未來展望 91
6.1 結論 91
6.2 未來展望 91
參考文獻 92
附錄A 刀具及加工參數資料庫內設定之資訊 94
附錄B NX API功能 95
[1] Chen, Z.C. and Fu, Q., 2011, “An optimal approach to multiple tool selection and their numerical control path generation for aggressive rough machining of pockets with free-form boundaries,” Computer-Aided Design, 43(6), pp. 651-663.
[2] Igari, S., Tanaka, F., and Onosato, M., 2012, “Computer aided operation planning for an actual machine tool based on updatable machining database and database oriented planning algorithm,” Proceedings of International Conference on Leading Edge Manufacturing in 21st century : LEM21, 6(6): pp. 717-723.
[3] El Mesbahi, A., R. Ahmed, and Jaider, O., 2014, “Optimized-automated choice of cutting tool machining manufacturing features in milling process.”
[4] 馬大程,以切削性能資料庫進行電腦輔助製造程式設計之實現,碩士論文,國立臺灣科技大學機械工程系,台北,台灣,2017。
[5] Sheen, B. T., You, C. F., 2006, “Machining feature recognition and tool-path generation for 3-axis CNC milling,” Computer-Aided Design, 38(6), pp. 553-562.
[6] Nasr, E.S.A., et al., , 2014, “A Feature Recognition System Using Geometric Reasoning,” Procedia CIRP, 18: pp. 238-243.
[7] Heo, E.-Y., et al., 2011, “High speed pocket milling planning by feature-based machining area partitioning, ” Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 27(4): pp. 706-713.
[8] Toh, C.K., 2005, “Design, evaluation and optimisation of cutter path strategies when high speed machining hardened mould and die materials,” Materials & Design, 26(6): pp. 517-533.
[9] Toh, C.K., 2006, “Cutter path strategies in high speed rough milling of hardened steel,” Materials & Design, 27(2): pp. 107-114.
[10] Gologlu, C. and Sakarya, N., 2008, “The effects of cutter path strategies on surface roughness of pocket milling of 1.2738 steel based on Taguchi method,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology,. 206(1): pp. 7-15.
[11] Banerjee, A., Feng, H.-Y., and Bordatchev, E.V., 2012, “ Process planning for Floor machining of 2½D pockets based on a morphed spiral tool path pattern.” Computers & Industrial Engineering, 63(4): pp. 971-979.
[12] Romero-Carrillo, P., et al., 2015, “Analytic construction and analysis of spiral pocketing via linear morphing,” Computer-Aided Design, 69: pp. 1-10.
[13] Souza, A.F.d., et al., 2014, “Evaluating the Roughness According to the Tool Path Strategy When Milling Free Form Surfaces for Mold Application,” Procedia CIRP, 14: pp. 188-193.
[14] Choi, Y.-K., Banerjee, A., and Lee, J.-W., 2007, “Tool path generation for free form surfaces using Bézier curves/surfaces.” Computers & Industrial Engineering, 52(4): pp. 486-501.
[15] Kim, D.-S., Jun, C.-S., and Park, S., 2005, “Tool path generation for clean-up machining by a curve-based approach,” Computer-Aided Design, 37(9): pp. 967-973.
[16] Lin, A.C. and Wei, C.-L., 1997, “Automated selection of cutting tools based on solid models,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 72(2): pp. 317-329.
[17] Duran, O. and Consalter, L.A., 2009, “Integrating PSO and CAM Database for Selecting Cutting Tools,” 2009 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security.
[18] 何翊銘,刀具資訊管理應用統之開發與實現,碩士論文,國立臺灣科技大學機械工程系,台北,台灣,2018。
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